‘Masonic Monday’ Question and Answer Links

Question #  Answer #    Date    Question?
#530-Q   #530-A 12/19/2016 – This nativist and patriotic group, formed in New York City by a very famous theologian and abolitionist, went through a few name changes before arriving at this knightly and Masonic sounding name. It was ultimately absorbed by the Know-Nothing movement in the later years of the antebellum era.
#529-Q    #529-A 12/5/2016 – The question of the magnitude of alchemical influence upon or in American Webb Work is contentious. For all Webb gave us, neither he, nor his disciples commented upon the origin of their symbol choice, only how the symbols related within the context of the Webb system. However within the systems of the Masonic Illuminist movement, specifically as expressed in what is called hauts-grad Masonry, the influence of a multitude alchemical systems and thought was, and remains, an established fact. One such rite was the Rite Ecossais Philosophique. In this system one finds a degree that is styled an Academie and is presided over by three main officers (Most Wise, Senior and Junior Surveillants or Sages). The Academie is “illuminated” by three candles, but the primary source of visible light is an ignited mixture of wine, mercury, and salt. The dominant colors are black, white, and red; the walls draped in black, with columns draped in red and white. The gloves and cordons of the officers are white, black, and red. These corollating to the common alchemical stages of nigredo, albedo, and rubedo. The candidate circumambulates the Academie three times, first in a circle, then in a square, and lastly a triangle which in this system have interplayed references to Hiram, Christ, and the Triune nature of the Grand Architect, again within common alchemical contexts. The tracing board, lectures and catechism of this degree include additional and direct references to Alchemical derived principally through Hermetic and Paracelcian thought and includes a list of approved sources of instruction included Hermes, Arnold de Villenaeue, Raymond Lully, Faber, Basil Balentine, Berard Count of Tevisan, Flamel, the Philalathes, the Cosmopolitian, and Michael Mayer.
Question #1: What is the name of this degree (in French or English) Question #2. For an Ecossais system, what common Masonic color is conspicuous by its absence?
#528-Q   #528-A 11/21/2016 – With which university was the first Shriners Hospital partnered?
#528-Q    #528-A 11/14/2016 – The Scottish Rite of Freemasonry is one of the most famous 33 degree systems in the world. Even profanes know of the 33rd degree. It isn’t the only one. This Masonic body, founded in England sometime in the 1770s, consisted of 33 degrees. It was first constituted in the United States in the state of Rhode Island in 1829. It fell into disuse and disappeared for more than a century until it was legitimized by the Grand Council of Allied Masonic Degrees in England and Wales, and the Colonies and Dependencies of the British Crown. Currently, in its current form, only one degree is conferred. Name that Masonic body. Bonus: List the titles of the 33 degrees within this degree system.
#527-Q   #527-A 11/7/2016 – This famous Freemason is known one of the key figures in introducing the Hinduism, in particular, Vedanta and Yoga, to the West. His work was focused on interfaith cooperation, introducing Hinduism to the Parliament of the World’s Religions in 1893. Who was this famous Freemason and in which lodge was he initiated?
#526-Q    #526-A 10/24/2016 – Which two Sovereign Grand Commanders are interred in the House of the Temple and how many Acts of Congress did it take to inter them there?
#525-Q    #525-A 10/9/2016 – This short lived Masonic side order, developed in Germany, named itself after a parable of Jesus. Each member would wear a ring with an insignia based on a verse from Saint Paul’s Letter to the Romans. What was the name of this Masonic side order?
#524-Q    #524-A 9/26/2016 – This provincial government building in Canada, completed in 1920, has some very curious devices and architectural features throughout its interior and exterior spaces. These including a statue of Mercury, a room modeled after the Holy of Holies (which includes an Ark of the Covenant replica), and even a pair of sphinxes. Post Da Vinci Code, this building has experienced renewed interest. Name that building.
#523-Q    #523-A 9/19/2016 – Constitution Day, a day designated to learn about our founding document, is celebrated on September 17th. The fact that 1/3 of the Constitution’s signers were Freemasons is oft repeated but what is less repeated is how many Grand Masters were signatories of the document. How many signers were PGMs? Bonus: Name them.
#522-Q    #522-A 9/12/2016 – American football has evolved from its humble roots as a rugby style game to what we see today. As experimentation flourished, this brother, whose name still graces youth football programs in the United States, developed a formation that took advantage of extra blocking when it was the tailback, not the quarterback, who led the offense. Although this formation has fallen out of favor, its effects on the game still persist. Who was this famous Freemason and football coach and in which lodge was he initiated?
#521-Q   #521-A 9/5/2016 – The Rose Croix and Rosicrucianism weaves its way into much of Freemasonry, particularly during its early period. America was no stranger to the Rose Croix during the 18th c., with a number of bodies and degree systems connecting themselves to the Haut Grade. In New York, near the end of the 18th c., a group of French Masons constituted this Rose Croix body, unrelated to the degree of the same name found in the Rite of Perfection. What is the name of this local New York Rose Croix body and under what degree system was it founded?
#520-Q    #520-A 8/29/2016 – Shrinedom, a subject we rarely touch on in these MMQs, has also helped to spread and strengthen Freemasonry globally, including in this country. Osman Shrine, the Shrine temple located Saint Paul, Minnesota, hosted the first ceremonial, or Shrine initiation, in this country. Name the country.
#519-Q    #519-A 8/22/2016 – The mystic aspects of Freemasonry were truly convoluted during the early period of organized speculative Craft. A number of bodies and degree systems were attempting to edge each other out in members. Most were irregular, some were clandestine, but all liked to harken back to a number of ancient societies and mystic realms. This Freemason developed a decidedly Egyptian motif in his own system. He was also the self-styled chief of the Rosicrucians and, during his interrogation during the Inquisition, made many revelations concerning the Illumanti and his own degree systems. The Church convicted him in 1789 and sentenced him to death, that sentence later commuted to life imprisonment. He died 4 years later. Who was this Freemason?
#518-Q    #518-A 8/8/2016 – A number of major leaguers have also been Masons, including this brother. One of the best pitchers of the so-called “dead ball era,” his records still stand today, as does his name, a name which every great pitcher wishes to associate his own. After he retired from the Bigs, he went back to farming until his death. Who was this famous Freemason and of which lodge was he a member?
#517-Q    #517-A 8/1/2016 – Most Masonic systems seem to employ sets of various working tools, operative tools repurposed to explain a moral truth or impart a spiritual lesson. What differs throughout the world is which tools are found which places. One of our earliest references to working tools was in an installation ceremony from the late 1800s in England, where eight working tools were named in a particular order. Name the eight working tools in order. Hint: You should always start with a rule.
#516-Q    #516-A 7/18/2016 – The Scottish Rite in the United States developed from a number of origins and constitutions and eventually led to three competing Supreme Councils here. One of those Grand Constitutions, purported to be written by Frederick the Great himself, led to the creation of two Supreme Councils, still in existence today. According to the French translation of this document, a Supreme Council needed this many Inspectors General to form a Grand Council,of which five had to be this. How many Inspectors needed to be present and what did five need to be?
#515-Q    #515-A 7/4/2016 – Freemasons have been involved in many aspects of the Federal District, aka the District of Columbia. Many theories have been made about what role Freemasonry played in the founding of the United States of America. One example of our role is traced to the literal founding of the district, the placing of the first boundary stone of the District. Your question, which lodge laid the first cornerstone of the District and what was the name of the presiding Master of that ceremony?
#514-Q    #514-A 6/13/2016 – Royal Ark Mariner is a degree (actually a small set if one includes the chair degree) that was once moored to Mark Lodges. Now, Royal Ark Mariner Lodges exist in a number of controlling bodies. The degree itself is quite old. Noachide references exist in many rituals, including Preston – Webb work’s third degree. When a Lodge of Royal Ark Mariners is opened, it is said to be opened on this stone, which is white. Interestingly enough, the word, in its original language, does not mean white but purple, that purple associated most with royalty. What is the name of this stone?
#513-Q    #513-A 6/6/2016 – During World War II, combat claimed the lives of many soldiers and sailors. One notable ship was sunk by a U-boat in the waters surrounding Newfoundland. As the ship sunk, four Navy Chaplains, seeing that there would not be enough life jackets to save everyone, removed their own and gave them to sailors who needed them. They were last seen upon that vessel, linked arms, praying as the ship entered the dark, freezing waters of the North Atlantic. This story was later adopted by the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction as a new Scottish Rite degree. Your question, what was the name of the sunken ship and what is the name of the degree in the NMJ system?This mountain, one of the most sacred in the Ancient Near East with nearly 30 known shrines built to various gods and goddesses, happens to house the highest temple, by elevation, ever discovered in the Levant. What is the name of this mountain?  Bonus: what is the name of the temple?
#512-Q    #512-A 5/23/2016 – This mountain, one of the most sacred in the Ancient Near East with nearly 30 known shrines built to various gods and goddesses, happens to house the highest temple, by elevation, ever discovered in the Levant. What is the name of this mountain?  Bonus: what is the name of the temple?
#511-Q    #511-A 5/9/2016 – One of the first Deputy Inspectors General in what would become the United States of America also happened to exhort, in a very famous scene in the port town of Newport, Rhode Island, what would fully illuminate the founding principles of the United States of America. When 76 men in the town of Newport were signing a declaration of loyalty to the cause of independence, the declaration contained the phrase, “upon the true faith of a Christian.” This famous Freemason refused upon the ground that all men were created equal. The phrase was removed and he signed the declaration of loyalty. Who was this famous Freemason?
#510-Q   #510-A 5/2/2016 – The early Grand Lodge period in the British Isles was not without its tumult. A number of upstart Grand Lodges were formed in England, likely in response to the perceived presumptuousness of “elite” Masons in London. This upstart Grand Lodge was formed in a northern English city, famed in Masonic history and lore due to its connection King Athelstan, in 1726 but may have been in existence as early as 1705. What is the name of this Grand Lodge, which sought to represent “all” of England?
Bonus: During a subsequent “revival,” this famed English statesman served as its Grand Master in 1761. Who was this English statesman?
#509-Q    #509-A 4/25/2016 – Theories surrounding the esoteric and occult activities of Francis Bacon have long existed. Whether it’s his supposed funding of Masonic and Rosicrucian activities or that he was secretly Shakespeare, he has drawn many thinkers to comment. One of his works is purported to represent a society run by German Rosicrucians founded in Peru. Name this work.
Bonus: This work is purported to have led to the establishment of a colony of Rosicrucians in the state of Pennsylvania. What was the name of the ship they took to cross the Atlantic?
#508-Q    #508-A 4/11/2016 – The Royal Arch (or Holy Royal Arch) was the prominent door by which degrees were introduced by the Antients, such as the Knights Templar degrees (later called orders) as well as a host of other degrees. This carried over to the United States as well. Your question, under which chapter charter were the Knights Templar degrees first worked in the United States?
#507-Q   #507-A 4/4/2016 – Freemasons have long been involved in education, including in higher education. This famous Freemason served as president of two Texas-based universities, founded by the breakaway Methodist Episcopal Church, South. He also has a most peculiar name. Who was this famous Freemason?
#506-Q    #506-A 3/28/2016 – The United Grand Lodge of England has one of the most recognizable Coat of Arms in the world. Whether it’s the cherubim or the Ark, the Arms is replete with symbolism. Your question, what is the translation of the Hebrew over the Ark? What is the translation of the Latin that serves as the Grand Lodge’s motto?
#505-Q   #505-A 3/21/2016 – This famous English Freemason who taught us the “Meaning of Masonry” encouraged members of his lodge to do this at high twelve. Your question, who was this famous Freemason and what activity did he promote? Bonus: what is the name of the still-existent lodge he founded in England?
#504-Q    #504-A 3/14/2016 – Of which two lodges, in the country of France, did Bro. Benjamin Franklin serve as Master?
#503-Q    #503-A 3/7/2016 – Each year, an elaborate ceremony is performed by a lodge to pay its rent. The rent it owes, a single peppercorn. Your question, which lodge pays its rent in a single peppercorn and where is it located?
#502-Q    #502-A 2/15/2016 – Happy Birthday to President Washington. At President Washington’s first inauguration, who administered his oath of office? In which lodge was his oath administrator made a Mason? What Grand office did this famous Mason hold?
#501-Q   #501-A 2/8/2016 – Connections between Masonry and Rosicrucianism have been longstanding. We find what Bogdan calls casual connections between the two at Edzel Castle, in Muses Threnodie, and even in the masques of Ben Johnson and in Poor Robin’s Intelligence. Knoop, Jones, and Hamer, however believe the first direct reference to Rosicrucian influence on Masonic thought can be dated at 5 September, 1730 with the following statement: “It must be confessed, that there is a Society abroad, from whom the English Free-Masons (asham’d of their true Origin, as above) have copied a few Ceremonies, and take great Pains to persuade the World that they are derived from them, and are the same with them: These are called Rosicrucians, from their Prime Officers, (Such as our Brethren call Grand Master, Wardens, &c.) being distinguished on their High Days with Red Crosses.” Your question, in what public organ was this quote published?
#500-Q    #500-A 2/1/2016 – The early era of Minnesota Masonry is a fine example of how our Gentle Craft formed in the pioneer days of the American West. Your questions, who presented the resolution to form the Grand Lodge of Minnesota and what office did he hold in the Grand Lodge of Minnesota? In what now famous location was the first newly chartered lodge (not the lodges that formed the state Grand Lodge but the first newly chartered lodge) founded according to its charter? Bonus: Upon the death of the aforementioned presenter of the resolution to form the Grand Lodge, this famous Sovereign Grand Commander ordered all “Bodies of the Obedience” to be draped in mourning for 60 days in honor of this past Inspector General. Name him.
#499-Q    #499-A 1/25/2016 – This little brick schoolhouse, found in a US state in the American South, was the site of a Masonic sponsored college, a segregated public school, and, in 1850, was the birthplace of this Masonically affiliated body, open to Master Masons and their female relatives, it being one of the largest in the world at more than 500,000 members. Which organization was founded in that little brick schoolhouse and what was the name of the educational institution at the time? Bonus: where is this large appendant body currently headquartered?
#498-Q    #498-A 1/11/2016 – During the early era of the Grand Lodge system in England, a number of Englishmen, including many Freemasons, invested heavily in the growing New World economy. And as in all rapidly expanding markets, a bubble was formed. When the bubble burst, Masons, like Dr. Anderson of Anderson’s Constitutions fame, were left destitute,  dependent on the love and charitable kindness of the  Fraternity. What was the name of this famous economic bubble?
#497-Q    #497-A 1/4/2016 – A decade after the US Civil War, this famous Freemason, who had served as a medical specialist for President Lincoln (tasked with relieving the President of his chronic foot pain), brought to England a decidedly American set of rituals, of Dutch Jewish origin, concerning a famous Biblical friendship. Who was this famous Freemason and what Masonic body did he help establish in England? Bonus: in what famous London cemetery is this famous Freemason buried?
#496-Q    #496-A 12/28/2015 – Although Freemasonry celebrates the Saints John, the Baptist and Evangelist, as our patron saints, they are not, in fact, the patron saints of stone masons. This Saint, a martyr, is designated as the patron saint of stone masons. His feast day is celebrated very near to the feast day of Saint John the Evangelist. Who is this Saint? Bonus: what special title is afforded to him?
#495-Q    #495-A 12/21/2015 – This medal, a badge given to a new Sir Knight upon his entrance into a Commandery, is commonly misattributed as a Grand Army of the Republic widow’s badge by uninformed resellers. It is not that but a specific style of cross used by a still existent order (in fact, many orders continue to use the name). Your question, to what countries do the eight points of the cross allude? Bonus: Although it is the required badge for all Sir Knights, it does not  represent the final order, the Order of the Temple; why?
#494-Q   #494-A 12/14/2015 – Alchemy, although not a direct subject for the investigation of Masons, is indirectly linked through many of our degrees. The study of alchemy gives us a better insight into our labors and ourselves. Although it is apparent that there were practitioners of alchemy in Medieval Europe working and studying alongside their Arab counterparts in Spain, it wasn’t until the publication of a translation of an Arabic work by this individual that alchemy became widely known in Europe. Who was this translator?
#493-Q   #493-A 12/7/2015 – Freemasonry, with its concepts of liberty, equality, and brotherly love, has been linked to revolutionary causes since at least the American War of Independence. Whether it’s famed revolutionaries like, Garibaldi, Agustín, or Bolivar, a number of prominent Freemasons have been linked to revolutionary causes. One revolutionary group, founded in Asia by a number of Freemasons, went one step further and actually used modified Masonic rituals, including a three degree system, and officers’ positions not unlike those found in Freemasonry, in its administration. What began in secret ultimately led to open rebellion against the Spanish Empire. This short-lived Republic was dissolved and this secret group destroyed by the American military at the turn of the century. What was the name of this secret group of revolutionaries?
#492-Q   #492-A 11/30/2015 – In almost all version of Preston-Webb ritual, the song known as Pleyel’s Hymn is played. Its creator, Ignaz Pleyel, not surprisingly, was
a Mason. Your question, in which lodge is he recorded as a member?  Bonus: Under what Grand Lodge was his lodge chartered?
#491-Q   #491-A 11/23/2015 – Thanksgiving is a time designated by the United States for family and friends to come together and share a meal and giving thanks for the many mercies and blessings that they have enjoyed. Although the Presidents of the Continental Congress and Articles of Confederation recognized several National Days of Thanksgiving during those years they served in that office, the proclamation for the First National Day of Thanksgiving for the United States of America was issued by this president and prominent Freemason,“ to the service of that great and glorious Being, who is the beneficent Author of all that was, that is, or that will be.” Who is this famous Freemason?
#490-Q   #490-A 11/16/2015 – Before the Grande Loge de France was formed, this English Freemason was named the Grand Master of Freemasons in France in the early part of the 18th century. This famous Freemason also has the interesting distinction of being elevated to a Dukedom while not being closely related to the monarch while also being a minor, in fact the only once since the 15th century. Who was this famous Grand Master of Freemasons of France?
#489-Q   #489-A 11/9/2015 – This famous Freemason was an absolutely stellar military mind. Serving in both World Wars, he was eventually relieved of duty by this Masonic president in 1951. Who was this famous freemason and by what Grand Lodge and by what method was he made a Mason?
Bonus: Who was the Masonic President that relieved him of his duty?
#488-Q   #487-A 11/2/2015 – On November 1st, many Christian churches celebrated All Saints’ Day. Although most branches of Freemasonry are open to men of all religious persuasions, most still use some Christian symbolism to this day. One rather preeminent research lodge, chartered under the United Grand Lodge of England, uses the Latin designation of these specific martyred saints, who have been associated with stonemasonry for many centuries, as its name. What is this Latin name and what is its English translation?
#487-Q   #487-A 10/26/2015 – During the early part of last century, an enterprising and eager young Mason brought back to the United States a number of degrees, orders, and bodies from the continent. From his home jurisdiction sprang a number of degrees still worked today. But just as interesting as it was for his mass diffusion of existing orders was in his attempt to manufacture his own. The resulting body survived only a short time but the degree still survives in the confines of the American AMD collection. Your question, who was this famous Freemason and what body did he attempt to create? (Hint: they met in quarries.)
#486-Q   #486-A 10/19/2015 – We mention in the work that Pythagoras, upon discovering the misattributed Pythagorean Theorem, called out, “Eureka!” and sacrificed a hecatomb. A hecatomb, being 100 head of cattle to be sacrificed, would have been quite the expense, had Pythagoras actually performed such an act of charity to the gods, this being held in some doubt. The source of this curious phrase is also somewhat in doubt but we do know where the first reference to hecatomb was made. Your question, which biographer of Greek philosopher’s first used the term, “hecatomb”, to describe Pythagoras’ supposed offering to the gods?
#485-Q   #485-A 10/12/2015 – Columbus Day is a day that was intended to honor the immigrant experience. As most Americans of the late 19th and early 20th centuries had a near direct link to some other country, the holiday was viewed as a way to acknowledge and honor an integral part of the American experience. This was even more recognizable to the flourishing Italian immigrant community.
In 1922, this New York lodge dedicated a special monument, a work of art created by a Past Grand Master of the Grand Orient of Italy, on the New York Masonic Home campus, with the Grand Master of New York presiding over the ceremony.   Your question, what is the name of this Masonic lodge and what kind of monument were they involved in erecting on the New York Masonic Home campus?
#484-Q   #484-A 10/5/2015 – In strange ways, our Masonic legends collide into each other in unintentional ways. Within Masonic study, we pay homage to the five classical orders of architecture. The final order of architecture, the Composite order, is generally agreed to have been employed first in this famed Roman structure, found in the Forum of Rome, honoring the destruction of this famous temple. What are the names of these two structures, respectively? Bonus: what image, carved in deep relief, serves as the main focal point of the structure that first employed the Composite order?
#483-Q   #483-A 9/28/2015 – After Prince Hall, along with 14 other free black men, were rejected by the colonial lodge located in Boston, Hall and his compatriots applied to and were initiated into this lodge. What is the number of this lodge, under what constitution was it, and to what military unit was it attached?
#482-Q   #482-A 9/21/2015 – For much of Freemasonry’s early period, the mystic ties were bound through traveling military warrants. These lodges would be attached to a military unit and would travel wherever the unit was stationed. The Grand Lodge of Ireland was one of the most prolific at warranting these lodges during that period, while a number of Prince Hall Grand Lodges still warrant military lodges to this day. Although that period has ended for the most part in Ireland, two Irish lodges that hold a traveling military warrant which meet in the country of England still  exist and continue to meet with regularity. Name these lodges.
#481-Q   #481-A 9/14/2015 – Open a deck of standard playing cards. Now take out the face cards. Before you is the father of one of our first Grand Masters, ritually speaking. Find him. Who is this famous father? Which suit and which card value?
#480-Q   #480-A 9/07/2015 – The Christian character, culture, and nature of the Masonic Order of the Knights Templar has led to many non-Christian Royal Arch Masons having to stop their progression into the later chivalric orders of the York Rite. This situation ultimately led to an organization designed to serve as a parallel body for non-Christian Royal Arch Masons. It was founded in Western New York in 1974. It conferred two degrees and based its underlying legend on the Maccabean Revolt. Your question, what was this parallel Masonic body that never received Grand Lodge recognition?
Bonus: What were the names of the two orders that the body conferred?
#479-Q   #479-A 8/31/2015 – The Soviet uprising left Freemasonry utterly destroyed in the former Russian Empire. But even during this early period of Soviet rule, Masonic themes would appear in Russian literature, including in this masterpiece. Not published until 1966, twenty-six years after the death of the author, this satirical novel used characters such as Satan (under the name of Woland) Jesus Christ, Judas Iscariot, Pontius Pilate, and according to literary critics, Masonic themes. What is the name of this Russian language satirical novel?
Bonus: the likely origin of these Masonic themes and allusions would come from the author’s father and this book, written by him. What is the name of this book?
#478-Q   #478-A 8/24/2015 – In the time between the First and Second World Wars, the three Home Grand Lodges (England, Ireland, and Scotland) drafted, and later adopted in the post-war era, a joint statement defining the basic character and criteria that has allowed Freemasonry to flourish and thus, should never be changed. What was the title of this statement?
#477-Q   #477-A 8/17/2015 – This famous Mason was appointed the King’s Master Mason and served as a Master of the Worshipful Company of Masons in 1633. In 1639, he was admitted into membership of the more exclusive, hidden inner association, or ‘Acceptioun’ within that Company, possibly making him the first FREE and  ACCEPTED Mason. Who was this famous Master Mason?
#476-Q   #476-A 8/10/2015 – The early continental European Masonic experience was built on experimentation and alchemical mixtures. Traditions and orders collided with  each other like atoms, creating new, interesting concoctions of beautiful complexity. This French Freemason, through his contacts with  Martinez de Pasqually’s Ordre des Chevelier Maçons Élus Cohen de L’Univers (Order of Elus Cohen) and Baron von Hund’s Strikten Observanz (Rite of Strict Observance), developed his own set of degrees which mixed the religious ceremonies (and Martinist influences) of the former and the Masonic Templarism of the latter. Who was this famous Freemason? What Masonic rite and Masonic body did he help form? Bonus: This famous freemason wrote that there are three kinds of alchemical freemasons. Name them.
#475-Q   #475-A 8/3/2015 – The Great Lakes system of America and Canada is the largest freshwater lake system in the entire world. 21% of all surface freshwater is found in this system.  Because of how large this system is, a number of wrecks have occurred, including the famous wreck of the “Edmund Fitzgerald.” The wreck would have likely been forgotten until the story of the 29 bells rung at this famous seafarer’s church came to the attention of America and a singer/songwriter by the name of Gordon Lightfoot. What is the name of this church, where is it located, and what Masonic statue is found on its grounds?
#474-Q   #474-A 7/27/2015 – Albert Magnus, or Albert the Great, was a Dominican friar, Bishop, and learned scholar during the Middle Ages. Because of his extensive writings on Aristotle, chemistry, astrology, and alchemy, he was elevated to fabled status. Many alchemical writings were attributed to him as well as many legends of dubious origin. One such legend involved the designing and construction of this cathedral. The legend says that Albert Magnus was visited by four men carrying four implements of architecture and design. After which, the Virgin Mary appeared and the four men laid out their work for Albert Magnus, and it is with this design that the cathedral was constructed. Your question, which cathedral is Albert Magnus said to have designed and  what four implements were the men of his vision carrying?
#473-Q   #473-A 7/20/2015 – This famous Freemason was known for an invention that significantly changed firearms. A popular phrase from that era went like this,  “God didn’t make all men equal – [this famous Freemason] did!” Who was this famous Freemason?
#472-Q   #472-A 7/13/2015 – Once a member of the youth order of Job’s Daughters reaches 20 years of age, she becomes a Majority Member. This means that the Majority Member may remain active but cannot vote on the business of  the Bethel or hold office. A hard working Majority Member may be awarded this degree of honor to recognize her for outstanding service to Job’s Daughters. What is this honor?
#471-Q   #471-A 7/6/2015 – We often discuss the nine Masonic signers of the Declaration of Independence. The men who signed that founding document were influential in not just politics; they were also lovers of science and the humanities. Two of the Masonic signers also served as charter members of this still-existent, very prestigious honorary society, founded in Massachusetts in 1780. In its first election the next year, Masonic luminaries Benjamin Franklin and George Washington were invited as members. What is the name of this honorary society?
#470-Q   #470-A  6/29/2015 – The Royal Master and Select Master degrees under the Cryptic Council system were not always together. In fact, for most of their early history, they would, like most side degrees, be conferred by wandering degree lecturers. However, the degrees of Royal Master and Select Master became permanently associated as a single system by the formation of this “Grand” Council. Your question, what was the name of this Council and where was it located?
#469-Q   #469-A  6/22/2015 – Saint John the Baptist is a figure of prominence in more than just Christianity. He is recognized and honored as a prophet within the religion of Islam. This includes numerous mentions in the Qur’an. Your question, within this Islamic context, where is John the Baptist’s tomb?
#468-Q   #468-A  6/15/2015 – This fraternal organization resolved to designate June 14th as Flag Day in 1907. This resolution was made official in 1911 by requiring each of its constituent lodges to observe Flag Day. Which fraternal organization gives Flag Day such prominence?
#467-Q   #467-A  6/8/2015 – I thought this question was fitting considering the UEFA Champions League Final was played on Saturday. This famous Freemason was an incredibly talented footballer who holds an incredible record, scoring 60 goals in a single season. Who was this famous English footballer, for what team did he play when he achieved that record, and which lodge was he a member?
#466-Q   #466-A  6/1/2015 – This famous Mason was influential in a number of early Masonic bodies, not the least of which, the newly formed Mother Council of the World, of which he served as Sovereign Grand Commander. He was a proud Ancient York Mason and even authored the first Ahiman Rezon for his jurisdiction. A healer of schisms, including the one between the Antients and the Moderns of his jurisdiction, his passion to heal separations within the Craft ultimately led to his disenfranchisement and subsequent vacation of all positions of Masonic authority. Who was this famous Freemason?
#465-Q   #465-A  5/25/2015 – I hope all of you had a chance to remember our fallen men and women on this Memorial Day. With Memorial Day on our minds, a question. The national leader of this fraternal organization designated the 30th of May as a day to “strew[…] with flowers or otherwise decorating the graves of comrades who died in defense of their country during the late rebellion, and whose bodies now lie in almost every city, village, and hamlet church-yard in the land.” This designation would later lead to the day we now call Memorial Day. Your question, name the national leader and the fraternal organization under whose authority this
proclamation was made.
#464-Q   #464-A  5/18/2015 – Happy Constitution Day to my friends in Norway. With that festive day in mind, a question. This famous Freemason was instrumental was named the first head of state of the newly independent Kingdom of Norway. Name him. What Grand Lodge was he a member of and what was his title?
#463-Q   #463-A  5/11/2015 – How many US Presidents have been coroneted as 33° Scottish Rite Mason? Name them.
#462-Q   #462-A  5/4/2015 – Exposés have been commonplace in Freemasonry since almost its founding as a speculative Craft. They are an interesting look into how our own ritual evolved. One prominent exposé, which uses Noah and his sons as its base legend, mentions 12 lights in Freemasonry. Name them.
#461-Q   #461-A  4/27/2015 – We’ve discussed in a previous question the cornerstone laying conducted by WBro. George Washington. Let’s go even further down the rabbit hole. All the implements, including the silver trowel, marble gavel, and working tools, were crafted by this brother. Your question, who was this craftsman and where was he a member?
Bonus: Where is the Washington trowel currently displayed and who owns it?
#460-Q   #460-A  4/20/2015 – On this date, April 20th, the highly influential William Preston was believed to be initiated. Your question, in what year was he believed to be initiated? As to the lodge, which affiliation did it hold (which body gave it its charter) and where did it meet?
Bonus: He transferred lodges. To which affiliation did his new lodge hold and where did it meet?
#459-Q   #459-A  4/13/2015 – This famous Freemason described the Royal Arch degree as the “root, heart and marrow of Masonry.” Your question, who was this famous Freemason and in what year was he exalted to the Royal Arch degree? Bonus: What Grand Lodge position did he hold?
#458-Q   #458-A  4/6/2015 – Let’s talk credentials. Many American Masons may never encounter a Master Mason’s Certificate but in much of the world, a Master Mason’s Certificate is the proof used by a traveling brother when he visits a lodge. So your question, what is the earliest surviving Premier Grand Lodge Master Mason’s Certificate? What year is it from?
#457-Q   #457-A  3/30/2015 – This Italian war hero, central to that country’s Risorgimento, was also instrumental in joining these two Masonic rites into a single rite. Your question, who was this famous Freemason and what two Masonic rites did he combine?
#456-Q   #456-A  3/23/2015 – Écossais Masonry has a long and twisting history. When the Rite of Perfection hit Irish shores, it was, like in most places, disorganized. Your question, what was the name of the first organized and chartered “Écossais” body in Ireland. From which country did it receive its original warrant? What year did it receive its warrant from “Mother?” Bonus: Which modern Irish Masonic body (with this rather regal name) also has the authority to confer a Rose Croix variant?
#455-Q   #455-A  3/16/2015 – There is a degree, once open only to Mark Master Masons, which is conferred by three different Masonic bodies, depending on the country it is conferred. In the United States, this degree and its charter is “moored” to this invitational body. In Canada, it is one of four degrees in this body. Elsewhere throughout the world, it is conferred within this lodge. What is the name of this degree and what are the names of the three bodies it is conferred?
#454-Q   #454-A  3/9/2015 – According to Masonic legend, how many Past Masters were at the building of King Solomon’s Temple? Bonus: what was their given title?
#453-Q   #453-A  3/2/2015 – Many ethnic fraternal organizations were formed during the Golden Age of Fraternalism. This fraternal organization was formed in Minneapolis in the late 19th c. Originally, it was to be named after the writer of the de facto national anthem from the country of origin of the immigrant founders, but was changed to this, the title of a different de facto national anthem of the same country. What is this fraternal organization?
#452-Q   #452-A  2/23/2015 – During the early era of American Masonry, there was a lot of disarray. This was especially true in the high grade Masonic degrees. Within the Masonic Knights Templar, there was an attempt to bring chaos to order. The Grand Encampment of the United States of America was the brainchild of these two prominent Masons and this well-known New York politician was its first Grand Master. Your question, who were these famous Masons?
Bonus: The Grand Encampment of New York, which was intimately involved in
the creation of the national Grand Encampment, was closely associated with this Scottish Rite group. Which SR group was that?
Double Secret Bonus: Which famous Freemason sailed with the first Grand Master of the Grand Encampment on the GM’s famous “Ditch”?
#451-Q   #451-A  2/16/2015 – Out of all the purported George Washington aprons, two are best known. The first is the LaFayette apron, supposedly sewn by LaFayette’s wife. The second apron is less well known. Whereas, the designs on the LaFayette apron included the Beehive and the Mark Master’s circle and its mystic letters, the apron of our question was far less ornate, with an American and French flag as the central design. Your question, what was this apron and what were the names of the Masons that gave it to Washington?
#450-Q   #450-A  2/9/2015 – Two of the emblems of the third degree are the Ark and Anchor and are described as “being emblematical of a well grounded hope , and a well-spent life.” It is most obvious to us where the symbol of the Ark comes from, but not so much the anchor. One famed Masonic Scholar posited its source came from scripture. Your question, who was this scholar and from what biblical passage
did he posit its origin?
#449-Q   #449-A  2/2/2015 – Super Bowl Sunday! Wait, it’s Monday. Oh. Well, question time. This famous Freemason appeared in a total of five Super Bowls, winning two Super Bowls, and was named Super Bowl MVP once. Who is this famous Freemason and from what lodge?
#448-Q   #448-A  1/26/2015 – This magical tome was influential with not only the founders of the Hermetic Order of the Golden but also Aleister Crowley. It supposedly told the story of an Egyptian magician who taught a system of magic to a Jewish man in Germany during the 14th and 15th c. Your question, what is this book’s title?
Bonus: Which translation, and its translator, led to this book’s rediscovery during the 19th and 20th c.?
#447-Q   #447-A  1/19/2015 – What was the name and number of the first lodge founded in Hawaii and what was the chartering grand body? Bonus: Curiously, it was constituted through one individual. What was his name, what was his Masonic rank within his degree system, and where was the lodge constituted?
#446-Q   #446-A  1/12/2015 – From what two cities, conquered by King David, did the bronze used for the pillars of King Solomon’s Temple come? Bonus: what was the name of the fallen leader?
#445-Q   #445-A  1/5/2015 – The term, the Great Architect of the Universe, is likely to have entered Masonic parlance when it was included in this document. Your question, what was this document?
Bonus: where did the author of this document likely take the term from and why?
#444-Q   #444-A  12/29/2014 – I hope all of you had a wonderful Saint John’s Day. Many lodges hold celebrations to honor one of our two patron saints, Saint John the Evangelist. Interestingly enough, the Evangelist was not always associated with
Freemasonry. Your question, in what year was the first verifiable mention of a Saint John the Evangelist feast day celebration in the minutes of a lodge and for which lodge did these minutes pertain?
#443-Q   #443-A  12/22/2014 – Christmas is a time for family and friends. But during the American War of Independence, Christmas 1776 was a harrowing and difficult time for the men under the generalship of George Washington. Having encamped themselves in winter quarters, the British were pleased to remain in place to plan for the spring campaign. Washington, seeing an opportunity, ordered his troops to
prepare to cross the Delaware River to engage the Hessian troops quartered in Trenton. This highly perilous move required some extremely skilled seafarers, in particular, this Mason’s regiment of Massachusetts militiamen. Your question, who was this Freemason and which regiment did he command?
Bonus: which lodge was he a member?
#442-Q   #442-A  12/15/2014 – This German Rosicrucian Order was established around 1750 bearing direct geographical, societal, and academic connections to the original Rosicrucian movement and was open exclusively to Master Masons and included the patronage of Brother Frederick William II of Prussia. The degree/order structure of this Order was later adopted by Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia, Societas Rosicruciana in Scotia, and Societas Rosicruciana in Civitatibus Foederatis, all of which continue as a Rosicrucian Orders open exclusively to Master Masons. This degree/order structure of this Order was later by the Golden Dawn, and thence to the non-Masonic world. What was the name of this Rosicrucian organization in German. Bonus question: Despite being directly connected to the original Rosicrucian movement, the core curriculum of study wasn’t Rosicrucianism (as defined in the two original manifestos). What was it?
#441-Q   #441-A  12/8/2014 – As many of you know, Freemasonry confers a number of “knighthoods.” Since knighthoods have to be conferred by a sovereign, there is really just one true knighthood related to Freemasonry. It is conferred by a King upon members of the Craft. Your question, what is this order of knighthood and where is it found? Bonus: Why does the Lord and Master of the Order not wear the insignia of the Order?
#440-Q   #440-A  12/1/2014 – We discuss the Ancient Landmarks of the Craft often but they are, in a funny way, unwritten. Essentially, they are truisms. Many Masonic authors have worked to create a comprehensive list of these Masonic truisms, including Mackey. One very good list is also the shortest. Bro. Roscoe Pound was the Dean of Harvard Law School and one of the great jurists of his age. He was also a very active Freemason. Your task is to list Roscoe Pound’s excellently crafted enumerated Ancient Landmarks. Bonus: Does your Grand Lodge have enumerated list of landmarks? If so, how
#439-Q   #439-A  11/24/2014 – In honor of the young men that just started their journey in the Order of DeMolay, a question concerning the organization. What is the highest honor that can be bestowed on an active DeMolay? What is the highest order that can be bestowed by the DeMolay Supreme Council? Bonus: why were the pearls in the DeMolay crown (pictured below) changed to rubies?
#438-Q   #438-A  11/17/2014 – This early Masonic convention changed a lot of Masonic practices for American Grand Lodges. Its stated goal was to create uniformity of the Work after the long Anti-Masonic period nearly wiped out American Freemasonry; a dark period that had visitors turned away, widows and orphans denied aid, and a serious and understandable fear of who was and who was not a Freemason. One such change was on which degree a lodge could transact business. Another involved creating dues cards. Your question: Name this Masonic convention. Bonus question: Which Grand Lodge first pleaded for a convention to
standardize the work and in which city did that one meet?
#437-Q   #437-A  11/10/2014 – The Order of Patrons of Husbandry, better known as the Grange, has existed as a fraternal organization and advocacy group for farm families and those interested in agriculture since its founding in 1867. What many don’t know is that its founder was a famous Minnesota Freemason. Your question, who was this Minnesota Mason?
#436-Q   #436-A  11/3/2014 -I’m trying out a new visual question. Look at the picture below and tell me:  what is the name of this type of column? Bonus: which emperor brought back the first example of these columns and what is their likely century of creation?
#435-Q   #435-A  10/27/2014 – In many Masonic bodies, we find a skull and crossed femurs being adopted as a symbol, including those lodges that use a chamber of reflection. There is a specific Latin phrase used in conjunction with the skull and crossed bones Your question, what is this Latin phrase and what does it mean in English?
#434-Q    #434-A  10/20/2014 – This invitational body within Masonry was founded in the country of Scotland. It’s notable for having the King of Scots as its hereditary Grand Master and for its particularly interesting ritual, with some parts written in verse. What invitational body is this?
#4323-Q    #433-A  10/13/2014 – Today is Columbus Day. Your question: which Masonic president enshrined this day as a federal holiday? Which fraternal organization was instrumental in getting this day recognized as a national observance?
#432-Q    #432-A  10/6/2014 – This famous Freemason was also a noted occultist in Victorian London. He was a member of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia, the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, and was known as a co-creator of a specific tarot deck. Your question, who was this famous Freemason and what is this tarot deck called? Bonus: which tarot card in this deck best describes you?
#431-Q    #431A  9/29/2014 – Albert Pike is one of the best known Masons this country has ever produced. Highly venerated as a Masonic scholar and leader, serving as the Sovereign Grand Commander of Ancient and Accepted of the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, Southern Jurisdiction. He finally passed away in Washington, DC, the location of the Supreme Council on April 2, 1891. Your question, where was his original place of burial and where are his remains now interred? Bonus question: the place he is buried now is designed upon this ancient wonder. What is that ancient wonder?
#430-Q    #430-A  9/22/2014 – As almost all Minnesota Masons know, the Scottish Rite here in Minnesota has had a long and interesting future. Many of the Lodges of Perfection here received patents, signed by Albert Pike himself. The Scottish Rite valleys, in 1935, were informed, by the Supreme Council, that it wished to change all names of the various SR bodies to their location. Your question, what was the original names of the Lodges of Perfection under the Orient of Minnesota? Bonus question: now name the rest of them.
#429-Q    #429-A  9/15/2014 – The two competing Grand Lodges of the early Grand Lodge period in England had an interesting trait, they both elected nobly-born Grand Masters. When thinking of the early Grand Lodge period, it’s important to note that English Freemasonry was frequently impacted by non-English Masons. Your question, how many of the nobly-born Grand Masters of the Premier Grand Lodge of England and the Antient Grand Lodge of England were either Irish or Scottish?
#428-Q    #428-A  9/8/2014 – Many conspiracy theorists connect Freemasonry to what was called the Illuminati. They state that Freemasonry served, and continues to serve, as an umbrella organization to protect the freethinkers of this secret order as they plotted to overthrow European society. Of course, once the Order’s second in command’s, Xavier Von Zwack, home had been searched and the group’s papers seized and published, it disappeared. The conspiracy theories persisted however. The questions for you to answer are these, which two contemporaries of the Illuminati began perpetuating the theory that the group continued underground and in which two works is the theory perpetuated?
#427-Q    #427-A  9/1/2014 – Labor Day has been officially celebrated in the United States since 1887, when it was adopted as a national holiday. Before that date, there were a number of labor unions that heavily promoted a day to celebrate laborers, one of which had, during its earliest period of growth, adopted a Masonic styled initiation ritual and this “chivalrous” name. Your question, what is the name of this labor union, who founded it, and what was its ritual book’s title?
#426-Q    #426-A  8/25/2014 – Bro. George Washington was considering one of our great Masons, an attitude that even existed during his lifetime. With that in mind, our question, George Washington laid the cornerstone of this government building on the National Mall, which survived the burning of Washington during the War of 1812. What building and what was the date of the cornerstone laying?
#425-Q    #425-A  8/18/2014 – I was chatting with a friend and brother who discussed a very old charter for a Minnesota Masonic body and it got me thinking about Minnesota Masonic History. So here’s your question: what is the name of the first Masonic body of each: Lodge, Royal Arch Chapter, Cryptic Council, and Commandery, by date of dispensation and what was the date of that body’s dispensation and eventual chartering? Extra credit: what was the original number for each body and what was its original chartering grand body?
#424-Q    #424-A  8/11/2014 -For Freemasons wheresoever dispersed, the concept of the Mystic Tie is extremely powerful. I have learned this even moreso with my travels to Castle Island Virtual Lodge or CIVL #190 in Manitoba. It is a lodge that meets online. I have sat in lodge with brothers from many parts of the world and I really do see the universal nature of the Craft. With that exposition firmly in place, my question to you is who is the famous Mason who coined the phrase “Brethren of the Mystic Tie” and in what work is it found?
#423-Q    #423-A  8/4/2014 -Defend yourselves! In older lodges, a special sword was given to the Tyler. This particular sword had an impressive shape and design. What was the name of this sword and where does it take its scriptural meaning from? 
#422-Q    #422-A  7/28/2014 -Masonry is filled to the brim with symbols. Many of those symbols have existed for many millennia before we began to use them for our own purposes. One of those symbols is the subject of this question. What symbol is shared by the Sovereign Grand Commander of the Supreme Council, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, USA and the Grand Master of the Grand Encampment of the United States of America? Why do you believe it is used?
#421-Q    #421- A  7/21/2014 -As we are taught within the Masonic ritual, Callimachus is said to have been the inventor of the Corinth column. This stupendous column, of which my lodge is named, is deemed a masterpiece of art. Callimachus would not be a first stringer by any means in the pantheon of Greek architectural masters but he
was noted for his cleverness in his designs. Your question, who first attributed the Corinth column to Callimachus? Finally, during an expansion of this US government building, 22 (original 24) Corinthian columns of this building were removed and later relocated to this beautiful national garden, of which building were they a part and where are they now?  
#420-Q    #420- A  7/14/2014 -Freemasonry is mentioned in a few adventures of Sherlock Holmes but this question is not about those mentions. Instead, we will explore one of the Masonic-like rituals invented by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Holmes takes possession of a curious catechism that he later uses to find an ancient symbol of authority and a missing factotum. The catechism was used be each man of this group at the time of his inheritance. What is the name of this ritual, in which book did it appear, what was the meaning of the ritual, and what were the items recovered?  
#419-Q    #419- A  7/7/2014 – Although not present in Preston-Webb work, a number of continental Masonic workings use what is called a chamber of reflection. Essentially, it is a small room where a candidate sits and reflects on a number of objects set before him. One such writing that appears on the wall of the chamber of reflection is the abbreviation, V.I.T.R.I.O.L. What is the full text of this acronym and what is the alchemical significance of the word vitriol?
#418-Q    #418- A  6/30/22014 – As has been widely reported, 9 signers, out of the 56 in total, of the Declaration of Independence are confirmed as Freemasons. My question for all of you is, how many of those signers were Grand Masters of a Grand Lodge of Masons and in what state(s) or province(s)?
#417-Q    #417- A  6/23/2014 -We are told that Saint John the Baptist and Saint John the Evangelist were eminent patrons of Masonry. They are also described as being representative of two perpendicular parallel lines. Upon the vertex of that line are the Holy Scriptures. It’s an interesting symbolic relationship to describe both of the Saints John. Going further into that relationship as well as both of their relationships to the Bible, Saint John the Baptist is actually described by the Gospel of Saint John to be a witness and testifier to this. Your question, what is this and where is this passage found?
#416-Q    #416- A  6/16/2014 – Francis Bellamy is best known as the writer of the Pledge of Allegiance. What is often forgotten is that he was also a Mason. Your question, in what lodge was he a member?
Bonus questions: Send me the original version of the pledge. Also, which fraternal organization petitioned to have the phrase, “under God,” added to the Pledge?
#415-Q    #415- A  6/9/2014 – Elias Ashmole is often mentioned in our famous Freemasons lists. A veritable renaissance man in London’s high society, he engaged himself in a number of scientific pursuits. But, like many of his contemporaries, such as Isaac Newton, he also participated in esoteric subjects, including the subject of this question, alchemy. Your query, what three volumes on alchemy did Elias Ashmole compile?
Bonus questions: what nom de plume did he use for one of them? What selfapplied title did he use for another? What does that title mean in English?
#414-Q    #414- A  6/2/2014 – In a Masonic lodge, we place the three lesser lights in a triangular fashion around the altar. It has been done for many centuries that way. Now here’s the interesting part, if you place all the burning tapers equidistant from the center of the altar and two of those tapers directly across from each other, then no matter where that third taper is placed, there will always exist a right angle. Neat, huh?
That leads me to our question, what is the name of this geometric theorem and for whom is it named?
Bonus: What animal was said to have been sacrificed in thanksgiving for its discovery and to which god?
#413-Q    #413- A  5/26/2014 – At the Gettysburg National Cemetery at Gettysburg National Military Park, there is a monument honoring the Freemasons who died on both sides of the conflict. This monument is called, “Friend to Friend, A Brotherhood Undivided.” The monument depicts two Freemasons from both sides of the conflict in a
brotherly embrace, as one laid mortally wounded on the battlefield. In fact, the subjects of this monument are real historical figures. Your question, who were these two Masons, and at what point of the Battle of Gettysburg was the event depicted?
#412-Q    #412- A  5/19/2014 – As I’m sure most Minnesota brothers are aware, the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry is very active in this state. With most of the Valleys doing a large number of degrees every single year, it’s no wonder that many brothers join it every year. What many brothers forget is that the Scottish Rite now looks very differently from the Scottish Rite 150 years ago. During its early history in this state, a number of lodges of perfection were chartered, many did not survive. In Minnesota, three of those lodges of perfection have been lost to time. Your challenge, in what cities were these now-defunct lodges of perfection chartered, what years were they chartered, and what were their names? Also, extra credit, what is the name and location of the only standalone lodge of perfection in the state?
#411-Q    #411- A  5/12/2014 – The dominant ritual used by lodges under the English Constitution is called Emulation Rite. It was created as a compromise between the work of the Moderns and the Antients. To ensure its proper performance, a Lodge of Improvement (kind of like a standing school of instruction) was created about a decade later. What is the name of this lodge of improvement, when was it founded, under whose charter is it held, and when was that lodge founded?
#410-Q    #410- A  5/5/2014 – The Swedish Rite is known as being a beautifully esoteric progression of degrees. However, it’s never traveled far outside Scandinavia and Germany. In a strange bit of luck though, the Swedish Rite did manage to find its way, for a short time, in the Caribbean. Your challenge, on what island was the Swedish Rite practiced and what was the lodge’s name and number?
#409-Q    #409- A  4/28/2014 – The Grand Lodge of England adopted, in 1721, a list of thirty nine regulations. One of those regulations required the Grand Lodge to meet quarterly, in addition to Saint John’s Day, on three distinct days of the English calendar. Which days did the regulation refer to and what are they collectively called?
#408-Q    #408- A  4/21/2014 – In Minnesota, this should normally occur at the first stated meeting after installation of the Lodges’ officers and will not end until the last stated meeting of the year or at a special communication held prior to the next installation of officers. What is this?
#407-Q    #407- A  4/7/2014 – What are the bodies of the Scottish Rite and which degrees are part of which body?
#406-Q    #406- A  3/31/2014 – What other educational programs are available for Brothers similar to the Master Builders Program and Masonic Light Program?
#405-Q    #405- A  3/24/2014 – Name the first mention of rivers in the scripture related to the location of the Garden of Eden?
#404-Q    #404- A  3/17/2014 – What are the seven Volumes of the Sacred Law in common use in varying numbers through the East?
#403-Q    #403- A  3/10/2014 – This message begins by telling us to observe, take note, and be sure that we understand, and examine closely the joy and pleasure that results from unity and harmony among Brethren. What degree is this from and what VSL verse is it?
#402-Q    #402- A  3/3/2014 –         ?     is one of the seven liberal arts and sciences, which forms, with Logic and Rhetoric. a triad dedicated to the cultivation of language. “God, ‘ says Sanctius, “created man the participant of reason; and as he willed him to be a social being, he bestowed upon him the gift of language, in the perfecting of which there are three aids.
#401-Q    #401- A  2/24/2014 -Aboard U.S. Navy ships, enlisted navigation specialists are known as ?   . In the Army, this individual with this same title would be responsible for  ?       .
#400-Q    #400- A  2/17/2014 – In the Ceremony of Light (DeMolay), how many candles light the path and what is the last candle emblematical of?
#399-Q    #399- A  2/10/2014 – Who won the inaugural Athens games first medal of the modern era and what medal (top prize) was it?
#398-Q    #398- A  1/27/2014 -The Boy Scouts and the Masonic Fraternity share a lot of similarities. One honorary group of the Boy Scouts is similar to the three Masonic degrees (though not in the teachings). What honorary body is this?
#397-Q    #397- A  1/20/2014 -A charismatic man has three elements or components of personal magnetism that we must work to have equally present in ourselves. What are the three elements or components?
#396-Q    #396- A  1/13/2014 -The mentoring program shows that the fraternity and each lodge has three elements to customize each lodge’s and each individual’s interests. The three elements encompass the fraternal, social responsibility and improving one’s mind. What do these elements represent?
#395-Q    #395- A  1/6/2014 -The Lodge Recognition program requires the Master and Wardens to both attend the annual communication. In their absence, who can attend in their place and what document is required?
#394-Q    #394- A  12/30/2013 -In the early 1700’s, how were lodges formed?
#393-Q    #393- A  12/23/2013 -What words best describe each sections of a liberal education?
#392-Q    #392- A  12/16/2013 -Who served as Grand Master of Minnesota Masons the second longest time?
#391-Q    #391- A  12/9/2013 -In the early lectures of the last century, now obsolete these questions were used
as a test: Q – Have you any keys to the secrets of a Mason? A – Yes – Q – Where do you keep them? A – In a bone box, that neither opens nor shuts but with Ivory Keys. – This week’s question is: What is the Bone Box?
#390-Q  #390- A  11/25/2013 -This working tool symbolizes the effects of education on the human mind or demonstrates the advantages of discipline and education. What working tool is this?
#389-Q  #389- A  11/18/2013 – What do the following passages: 1 Kings 8:61, 2 Chronicles 30:9-27, Jeremiah 17:9-10, Matthew 12:35-36 and Mark 7:14-15 have in common with each other and with becoming a Mason?
#388-Q  #388- A  11/11/2013 – How is a point within a circle used to be able to complete square work?
#387-Q  #387- A  11/4/2013 – There are in Freemasonry twelve original points which form the basis of the system. What were the twelve points?
#386-Q  #386- A  10/28/2013 – What is the residency requirement for a petition for the degrees of Masonry? Is a petitioner required to petition the lodge closest to his residence?
#385-Q  #385- A  10/21/2013 – What was the “Enlightenment” and how did it relate to Freemasonry?
#384-Q  #384- A  10/14/2013 – Who is the smallest person made a Mason?
#383-Q  #383- A  10/7/2013 – If the Entered Apprentice represents a youth standing at the portals of life, what does the Fellowcraft represent?
#382-Q  #382- A  9/30/2013 – If you only time to give a two or three line answer (about 15 seconds), what do you say to someone who asks “What is Masonry”?
#381-Q  #381- A  9/23/2013 – While examining the story of Ezekiel in its entirety, we find that Untempered Mortar has three characteristics. What are they?
#380-Q  #380- A  9/16/2013 – What pages of the bible did Brother George Washington have his hands placed on during his inauguration?
#379-Q  #379- A  9/9/2013 – What is generally accepted as the twelve commandments of the GROTTO?
#378-Q  #378- A  9/2/2013 – What is the creed of the Scottish Rite?
#377-Q  #377- A  8/26/2013 – Why is a Lodge referred to as a Blue Lodge?
#376-Q  #376- A  8/19/2013 – What is the length of a cubit?
#375-Q  #375- A  8/12/2013 – When and who founded/created the following: the Golden Fleece and the Star & Garter?
#374-Q  #374- A  8/5/2013 -What are the different parts of the Sculpture and what does this sculpture (memorial sculpture referenced in the Master Mason Degree) remind us of? The answer does not include what each of the parts represents/teaches, rather what the sculpture as a whole can teach us.
#373-Q  #373- A  7/29/2013 – As the form of a symbolic Lodge is an oblong square, according to the English
Ritual, that of a Royal Arch Chapter, is a               ?
#372-Q  #372- A  7/22/2013 – In the Northern Hemisphere, the North Star is the primary star for navigation. What is the primary stars for navigation in the southern hemisphere?
#371-Q  #371- A  7/15/2013 – The Commissioner of Patents In 1872 ruled that the Masonic Square and Compasses emblem could not be used in any trademark or trade name for commercial purposes. Prior to this ruling the Square and Compass was registered in Montana and is still in use but not by a lodge. How is it being used?
#370-Q  #370- A  7/8/2013 – What were the principals of the three sides of the triangle according to the Egyptians?
#369-Q  #369- A  7/1/2013 – This week’s question is two parts: 1) How were citizens summoned for the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence? and 2) Of the fifty-six signers of the Declaration of Independence it has been said that many were Masons however this may be based on having been referred to as members of the Fraternity by various Masonic writers, and in Masonic publications, but their Lodge affiliation is not known. Who were known to be members of a Masonic lodge that signed the declaration of Independence?
#368-Q  #368 – A  6/24/2013 – The lecture of the First Degree teaches us that Saint John the Baptist was one of the eminent patrons of Freemasonry, and June 24th is his day. This Grand Lodge was formed on St. John’s Day and is seen as creating the foundation of modern Masonry. What Grand Lodge was it?
#367-Q  #367 – A  6/17/2013 – The function of this committee within the lodge is one of the most important. It is a committee comprised of three individuals, their selection unknown by the membership. What committee is this and what are they to be particularly attentive of?
#366-Q  #366 – A  6/10/2013 – This American Grand Lodge was the second to recognize Prince Hall Masonry as a Legitimate Masonic body. Which American Grand Lodge was this?
#365-Q  #365 – A  6/3/2013 – In 1905, who was said to be the oldest Mason in Minnesota? At the time of death what lodge was he a member of? Where was he made a Master Mason? Was he a member of the lodge in which he was initiated, passed and raised?
#364-Q  #364 – A  5/27/2013 – If the sweet savor of incense is like unto a prayer, what is the pot from which it comes like unto?
#363-Q  #363 – A  5/20/2013 – Who were Tubal Cain’s siblings and what did these children found?
#362-Q  #362 – A  5/13/2013 – In the Holy Bible, where is the name “Huram Abi” found? (variant of today’s Hiram Abiff) As a bonus, what craft(s) did he excell in? Here’s a hint: use the New Living Translation, vs the KJV.
#361-Q  #361 – A  5/6/2013 – Where is this Monument located? What is its name and what is the story behind it?
#360-Q  #360 – A  4/29/2013 – What are the sacred dictates inculcated in a Freemason’s lodge?
#359-Q  #359 – A  4/22/2013 – How many competencies are there in the Masonic Light Award Program and what are they?
#358-Q  #358 – A  4/15/2013 – The Duane E. Anderson Excellence in Masonic Education Award was first issued in 2003. Who were the first recipients of this prestigious award in 2003?
#357-Q  #357 – A  4/8/2013 – This association has been publishing a Masonic bulletin for 90 years, providing Disaster Relief services for Grand Lodges for 90 years and providing services to its member Grand Lodges that they would find difficult to provide for themselves. What is the name of this organization and what is the bulletin they have been publishing?
#356-Q  #356 – A  4/1/2013 – Who were the Grand Lodge of Minnesota’s 2nd, 3rd and 4th Grand Masters? When did they serve and in what Minnesota Masonic Lodge did they all share their early Minnesota memberships within?
#355-Q  #355 – A  3/25/2013 – Freemasonry is said to be supported by Wisdom, Strength and Beauty. Many sources have stated that these virtues are represented in architecture and by three individuals. What architecture and who represent the three virtues?
#354-Q  #354 – A  3/18/2013 – Who were the men that comprised the first committee to create a design for a seal for the new American Nation? Which were Freemasons?
#353-Q  #353 – A  3/11/2013 – What do the working tools of the 2nd Degree teach about our destiny when combined together?
#352-Q  #352 – A  3/4/2013 – Who was the first Mason raised in Minnesota – including when and where was this done? Extra credit – let us know what you may want to tell Masons about this person? (comments will be shared.)
#351-Q  #351 – A  2/25/2013 – What is the first major American Masonic research organization and what magazine did it publish?
#350-Q  #350 – A  2/18/2013 – What is the Schaw Statutes and what is the significance to Masonry today?
#349-Q  #349 – A  2/11/2013 – How long was a cable tow during the time of our Fraternity’s infancy and how long
is a cable tow now?
#348-Q  #348 – A  2/4/2013 – What did the “Knights Templar” originally call themselves and what was their original goal?
#347-Q  #347 – A  1/28/2013 – What is another word for the Master’s gavel and how is this word compared with the use of the gavel in the lodge?
#346-Q  #346 – A  1/21/2013 – In Minnesota, there are two exceptions for no Lodge Communications being held on Sunday. What are they?
#345-Q  #345 – A  1/14/2013 – What was the origin of the expression “Blue Lodges?”
#344-Q  #344 – A  1/7/2013 – What is meant by the Golden Fleece, Roman Eagle, and the Star & Garter?
#343-Q  #343 – A  12/31/2012 – What is taught by the use of the Three Ruffians?
#342-Q  #342 – A  12/24/2012 –  What is the principle lesson of the Entered Apprentice Degree and how should it be applied?
#341-Q  #341 – A  12/17/2012 – What is lawful Masonic information when vouching for a Brother?
#340-Q  #340 – A  12/10/2012 – What is the Masonic symbolism of point within a circle?
#339-Q  #339 – A  12/3/2012 – Other than how a Mason votes, what additional four secrets are there for Masons in Minnesota?
#338-Q  #338 – A  11/26/2012 – When a lodge in Minnesota is opened on the first degree, who may vote on lodge business during a stated or special communication?
#337-Q  #337 – A  11/19/2012 – Who wrote the Masonic Funeral Dirge?
#336-Q  #336 – A  11/12/2012 – Sculpted into the east panel of the Tomb of the Unknowns at Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia, which faces Washington, D.C., are three Greek figures. What do the three Greek figures represent? Extra credit for what words are inscribed on the back of the Tomb?
#335-Q  #335 – A  11/5/2012 – What does the widow Blue Masonic Shoe emblematical represent? Extra credit if you know what book of the Bible this comes from.
#334-Q  #334 – A  10/29/2012 – What does the Master’s hat represent?
#333-Q  #333 – A  10/22/2012 – Why are the Stewards’ rods white and the Deacons’ rods black? Extra credit for those that can find what color the Deacons’ rods were originally and what they were topped with?
#332-Q  #332 – A  10/15/2012 – The hoodwink used during the degrees is said to represent three symbolic purposes. What are they?
#331-Q  #331 – A  10/08/2012 – In Minnesota, when shall no dispensation be granted to form a new lodge by the Grand Master?
#330-Q  #330 – A  10/01/2012 – According to the document “Duties And Obligations of Lodge Officers”, what lodge officers should (or must) attend the leadership schools?
#329-Q  #329 – A  09/24/2012 – What is the name of the Most Worshipful Brother of the Grand Lodge of Minnesota that was born in a lodge that he was then initiated at and who also died while attending a Masonic Lodge?
#328-Q  #328 – A  09/10/2012 -What is the name of the oldest living Past Grand Master in Minnesota?
#327-Q  #327 – A  09/03/2012 -In Bermuda, there are currently 3 and one lodge under the Grand Lodge of Scotland has occupied the building they are in which was built in 1620 and other than fortifications, is the oldest stone building in Bermuda.  What is the name of the lodge and what is the amount they pay in rent to the governor?
#326-Q  #326 – A  08/27/2012 – For each of the three degrees, what is the Holy Bible opened to?
#325-Q  #325 – A  08/20/2012 – What was the original printed code of laws in English Masonry?
#324-Q  #324 – A  08/13/2012 – How originated the term “the Grand Honors” also known as “3 times 3”?
#323-Q  #323 – A  08/06/2012 – A notable Mason who was born and raised a Master Mason in Social Lodge No. 48 of Northfield, Minnesota, educated in Michigan, died in North Dakota and was returned to Minnesota for burial and was well known. Who was he and what caused him to become well known?
#322-Q  #322 – A  0730/2012 – Who are the four Presidents carved into Mt. Rushmore and what is symbolized by each person?
#321-Q  #321 – A  0723/2012 – What is the largest Masonic Temple in the world and when was it formally dedicated? 
#320-Q  #320 – A  0716/2012 – Every United States President from Tennessee was a Mason.  Who were they and what state were they each born in?
#319-Q  #319 – A  07/9/2012 – Prior to becoming a Mason, what did Brother Ernest Borgnine need to do three times?
#318-Q  #318 – A  072//2012 – This week’s question is to identify the different parts of a column.
#317-Q  #317 – A  06/25/2012 – When and where did African-American Freemasonry start in the United States?
#316-Q  #316 – A  06/18/2012 – The first record of an initiation in an English lodge is 16 October 1646 when it was
noted in this man’s diary that he and Colonel Henry Mainwaring had been initiated into a non-operative lodge. Who is this person?
#315-Q  #315 – A  06/11/2012 – This Iowa city was originally known as Shibboleth. What is the name of that
city now?
#314-Q  #314 – A  06/4/2012 – This play is said to be the first Masonic opera, 61 years before Brother Mozart composed his Masonic Opera known as “The Magic Flute.” What was this opera, and what is the name of the one act operetta rearranged from it which was then played in 1733?
#313 – Q  #313 – A  05/28/2012 – When did our flag have a different number of strips (from when to when) and how many strips did it have during this change.
#312 – Q  #312 – A  05/21/2012 – What is the Hermetic philosophy?
#311 – Q  #311 – A  05/14/2012 – In 1779, the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania granted a Warrant to Col. Proctor of the Artillery, to open a Military Lodge. In the Warrant what was this Lodge called?
#310 – Q  #310 – A  05/07/2012 – This famous Mason was known for his folksongs such as “Jimmy Crack Corn”, “Little Bitty Tear”, and “Blue Tail Fly.” Who is this Brother?
#309 – Q  #309 – A  4/30/2012 – What Masonic Lodge in Australia met from 1800 to 1807 without a warrant and where did they meet?
#308 – Q  #308 – A  4/23/2012 – This Mason died in 1914 at the age of 85 and was the last Civil War veteran to die as a result of wounds from that war. Who was he?
#307 – Q  #307 – A  4/16/2012 – The making a mason at sight is the prerogative of a Grand Master in many jurisdictions. This U.S. President was made a mason at sight and is the only person to have been elected President of the U.S. and served as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Who was this person?
#306 – Q  #306 – A  4/9/2012 – What does “So Mote it be” mean?
#305 – Q  #305 – A  4/2/2012 – Which Lodge in the continental United States has the highest elevation above sea level?
#304 – Q  #304 – A  3/26/2012 – Which presidents have taken the oath of office on the George Washington Bible, besides George Washington? To which Lodge does the Bible belong? Why did Washington take his oath on that particular Bible?
#303 – Q  #303 – A 3/19/2012 – What was the first Masonic book published in America, where was it printed, who published it, and in what year?
#302 – Q  #302 – A  3/12/2012 – Please list the official names of the members of these bodies, regardless of past or current officer position (Hint, Symbolic Lodge would be Brother or Brethren): Symbolic Lodge, Chapter, Council, Commandery, Scottish Rite, Shrine, Grotto and Tall Cedars.
#301 – Q  #301 – A  3/5/2012 – How many US Presidents were Masons and who were they?
#300 – Q  #300 – A  2/27/2012 – What is the largest number of blood brothers to be made Masons at the same time?
#299 – Q  #299 – A  2/20/2012 – Who laid the cornerstone of the Statue of Liberty?
#298 – Q  #298 – A  2/13/2012 – On what famous frigate was a Masonic lodge constituted after the vessel was reconstructed?
#297 – Q  #297 – A  2/6/2012 – Who was the first PGM to die in Minnesota, when did he die, and where was he interred?
#296 – Q  #296 – A  1/30/2012 – In 1798 after carrying out successful tests, this brother published his findings: An Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of the Variolae Vaccinae, a Disease Known by the Name of Cow Pox. Who was this brother and when did he serve the craft as Master of his lodge?
#295 – Q  #295 – A  1/23/2012 – How many lectures are there in the First Degree of Freemasonry?
#294 – Q  #294 – A  1/16/2012 – This U.S. President and Freemason won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906. Who was the President and what did he do that deemed him worthy of the Nobel Peace Prize?
#293 – Q  #293 – A  1/9/2012 – Have triplets ever been made Masons simultaneously? If yes, when did it occur and what were their names?
#292 – Q  #292 – A  1/2/2012 – The Grand Lodge of Minnesota has restored 4 surrendered charters in its history. Name the lodges that have had their charter restored.
#291 – Q  #291 – A  12/26/2011 – This Lodge was charted in 2000 for the purpose of promoting, encouraging, conducting and fostering the principles of Freemasonry, and to assist in promoting the health, welfare, education and patriotism of children worldwide. What lodge is this? Who made due return of this special deputation?
#290 – Q  #290 – A  12/19/2011 – Give at least one Masonically significant event for the following dates:
December 26, 1972; December 27, 1783, two events on this date in the year 1813; December 30, 1837.
#289 – Q  #289 – A  12/12/2011 – Mackey describes this system of Masonry as “a mixture of the pure Rite of York, the high degrees of the French, the Templarism of the former Strict Observance, and the system of Rosicrucianism.” What is this system of Masonry?
#288 – Q  #288 – A  12/5/2011 – What is St John The Evangelist Day all about? Why has it fallen into a state of apathy? What might be done to give it better attention?
#287 – Q  #287 – A  11/28/2011 – Who first proposed the idea of a Templar – Freemasonry connection? Hint: it was not Chevalier Ramsay.
#286 – Q  #286 – A  11/21/2011 – Grand Master Hiram Abif was three times buried: What Minnesota Mason and Veteran was thrice buried?
#285 – Q  #285 – A  11/14/2011 – What is a Moon Lodge?
#284 – Q  #284 – A  10/31/2011 – According to the Minnesota Masonic Code, what is the minimum dollar amount that a Lodge can prescribe for its annual under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of AF and AM of Minnesota? (Hint: Don’t include the Grand Lodge per capita amount).
#283 – Q  #283 – A  10/24/2011 – What Lodges that originally comprised the 1717 Grand Lodge of England are still in existence?
#282 – Q  #282 – A  10/17/2011 – Who was the first Chinese man ever to be elevated as Master of an English Lodge, and of which Lodge was he Master?
#281 – Q  #281 – A  10/10/2011 – What is the proper way to retire a United States flag and what dictates this proper way?
#280 – Q  #280 – A  10/3/2011 – What year and where was the first Masonic Lodge in Canada duly constituted?
#279 – Q  #279 – A  9/26/2011 – As the then youngest governor in the history of the U.S., this Mason served as 25th Governor of Minnesota from 1939 to 1943. He ran for president of the United States nine times, was governor of Minnesota four times, governor of Pennsylvania twice, the U.S. Senate twice, and mayor of Philadelphia once. Who is he and when did he serve the Craft as the Worshipful Master of a Masonic Lodge?
#278 – Q  #278 – A  9/19/2011 – What are the roots of AF&AM and the origin of F&AM in mainstream Masonry?
#277 – Q  #277 – A  9/12/2011 – Who was the first native-born American to become a Mason?
#276 – Q  #276 – A  9/05/2011 – The Tyler’s (of Old) Duties at many lodges included the job of “Drawing the Lodge.” What is this duty?
#275 – Q  #275 – A  8/29/2011 – The question is, which two American presidents served as Grand Masters and what states did they serve?
#274 – Q  #274 – A  8/22/2011 – Many Masons are curious as to the different dates used in Freemasonry. What are the calendar years of Craft Masonry, York Rite Masonry (three) and Scottish Rite called? How would the year 2011 be represented in Craft Masonry, the three York Rite bodies and the Scottish Rite?
#273 – Q  #273 – A  8/15/2011 – A lodge is a certain number of Masons duly assembled with the Holy Bible, Square, and Compasses and Charter, or warrant, empowering them to work. What Masonic Lodge in Australia met from 1800 to 1807 without a warrant and where did they meet?
#272 – Q  #272 – A  8/08/2011 – When did Minnesota’s ritual work become our “Authentic Work”, who were the Masons that exemplified it for the Brethren before the Grand Lodge Communication, and where was the work originally from prior to coming to Minnesota?
#271 – Q  #271 – A  8/01/2011 – How many grand lodges are there, worldwide, among recognized Masonic bodies, which by treaty or historic fact maintain lodges outside their national (state, district, etc.)
boundaries? Name them, and provide examples of the foreign locations where they maintain lodges.
#270 – Q  #270 – A  7/25/2011 – What is the symbolism of Acacia –as used in certain Masonic services?
#269 – Q  #269 – A  7/18/2011 – What are the five Masonic secrets, without publishing the secrets but rather alluding to their subject area, that we cannot share with profanes? HINT: check the Minnesota Masonic Manual, or its electronic form on the Grand Lodge website.
#268 – Q  #268 – A  7/11/2011 – Other than the mainstream 52 grand lodges (including the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico), and the regular set of the 37 Prince Hall jurisdictions that make up the PHA, do any broadly recognized and regular foreign jurisdictions maintain lodges on US soil? If so, how many jurisdictions do so, and where are these lodges?
#267 – Q  #267 – A  7/04/2011 – On June 11, 1776, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert R. Livingston are appointed to a committee to draft a declaration of independence. On July 4th it was signed by 56 men, 9 who were CONFIRMED Freemasons. Who were they?
#266 – Q  #266 – A  6/27/2011 – In 1799 due to Parliamentary proclamation, Freemasonry almost came to a halt due to this act. What is the name of the act and what was required of each Private Lodge’s Secretary for Freemasonry to be exempted from the terms of this Act?
#265 – Q  #265 – A  6/20/2011 – On March 3, 1847, Congress authorized United States postage stamps. The first general issue postage stamps went on sale in New York City, July 1, 1847. One, priced at five cents, the other, a ten-cent stamp. Each of these stamps had a well-known Freemason’s picture on them. Who are the first two individuals pictured on these two stamps?
#264 – Q  #264 – A  6/13/2011 – According to the Minnesota Masonic Code, there is one lecture that is not mandatory after degree conferrals and can be given at the discretion of the respective Lodge. Which lecture of which degree is this, and where is the specific language in the Minnesota Masonic Code (i.e. Article, Section)?
#263 – Q  #263 – A  6/6/2011 – What does the Talmud tell us regarding King Hiram’s reward for supplying the cedars of Lebanon for the Temple?
#262 – Q  #262 – A  5/30/2011 – What is a hecatomb?
#261 – Q  #261 – A  5/23/2011 – Where is the oldest Masonic cornerstone located in what is now Minnesota and when was it laid? Hint: it was not considered to be in Minnesota until Minnesota was actually formed.
#260 – Q  #260 – A  5/16/2011 – Freemasons have generally had four types of processions that they have been involved in since the early 1700’s. The first three are display, ceremonial, and building processionals. The fourth is associated with Masonic funerals. What year is the earliest reference to a funeral procession and who was the brother being given this honor?
#259 – Q  #259 – A  5/9/2011 – This famous Freemason’s mother has a memorial built to her memory in the form of a functional well. This monument has the inscription “Drink of the pure crystals and not only be ye succored but also refreshed in the mind.” Who was this woman and who was her son?
#258 – Q  #258- A  5/2/2011 – According to one resource, ancient Masonic tradition informs us that that at the building of King Solomon’s Temple there were arranged nine classes of workers under their respective Grand Masters. What are the nine classes and how many does Masonic Tradition inform us were in each of the classes?
#257 – Q  #257- A  4/25/2011 – An organization first heard of in 1724, they believed that theirs was an order formed by the first Emperor of China. An ancient and well respected Chinese philosopher was supposed to have held their highest seat of honor. What was the name of this order and who was this philosopher?
#256 – Q  #256- A  4/18/2011 – Albert Pike is well known in Scottish Rite masonry and is noted for compiling a substantial book on the Scottish Rite, “Morals and Dogma.” Which well-known Minnesota Mason wrote a much needed “Digest-Index” of this book in 1909?
#255 – Q  #255- A  4/11/2011 – What is the Ahiman Rezon?
#254 – Q  #254- A  4/04/2011 – The New York Brethren have two programs at the Grand Lodge level that are very similar to those in Minnesota.  These programs help benefit everyone and rather than research which state had the programs first, I would like to focus on their identification and promotion. What are these 2 programs?
#253 – Q  #253- A  3/28/2011 – Recognition of one Grand Lodge to another is what allows a Mason to be able to travel into foreign countries. Throughout the years, recognition between Grand Lodges may change due to any number of reasons but the basic principles for Grand Lodge Recognition are basically the same.  In 1929, this Grand Lodge accepted basic principles for Grand Lodge Recognition. What Grand Lodge was this and what are the 8 basic principles the accepted
#252 – Q  #252 – A  3/21/2011 – How would a Cryptic Mason denote our current year 2011? When finding the year, what significance does this calendar have for Cryptic Masons?
#251 – Q  #251 – A  3/14/2011 – (a) What is the number of the landmark according to Mackey for every Master Mason to visit and sit in a regular Lodge? (b) In the Jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of AF & AM of Minnesota, who cannot be refused admission to a lodge and under what conditions?
#250 – Q  #250 – A  3/07/2011 – The laying of a Masonic Cornerstone is an important event that last occurred in Minnesota with the laying of the Cornerstone at the University of Minnesota in 2010. This week’s question is: What is the first recorded Masonic cornerstone to be laid?
#249 – Q  #249 – A  2/282011 – (a) What is the longest proven record of Masonic membership in the world? (b) What is the longest proven record of Masonic membership in the United States?
#248 – Q  #248 – A  2/21/2011 – Who were the Freemasons who were appointed to the committee to draft a Constitution for the new United States of America?
#247 – Q  #247 – A  2/14/11 – In Freemasonry the Beehive is an emblem of industry, but in 1745 another group adopted the Beehive as its emblem for immortality and resurrection; what is the name of that group?
#246 – Q  #246 – A  2/7/11 – What is the earliest record of the “Perfect Points of Entrance?”
#245 – Q  #245 – A  1/31/11 – The candle sticks which hold the three lesser lights can be said to be
symbolic of what?
#244 – Q  #244 – A  1/24/11 – In addition to providing illumination, candles in a Lodge Room are emblematic and symbolic of what?
#243 – Q  #243 – A  1/17/11 – What is the origin of this sentence, or where did it come from?: Let it not be supposed that you have here labored in vain and spent your strength for naught; for your work is with the Lord and your recompense with God.
#242 – Q  #242 – A  1/10/11 – Where did the Master’s collar , and other lodge officers, originate, and why?
#241 – Q  #241 – A  1/3/11 – What are the Masonic colors and what do they represent?
#240 – Q  #240 – A  12/27/10 – What is the creed of a Freemason?
#239 – Q  #239 – A  12/20/10 – What are the actual wages of a Fellowcraft?
#238 – Q  #238 – A  12/13/10 – Of what is the broken column emblematic?
#237 – Q  #237 – A  12/06/10 – On what is the universality of Masonry based?
#236 – Q  #236 – A  11/29/10 – What passages of scripture are most appropriate for reading in Lodge?
#235 – Q  #235 – A  11/22/10 – What is regarded as the most important word in Freemasonry?
#234 – Q  #234 – A  11/15/10 – What Masonic duties are implied by the tenets of brotherly love?
#233 – Q  #233 – A  11/8/10 – Regarding the orientation of a Lodge building – why are lodges placed east to west, with the Master’s place in the East?
#232 – Q  #232 – A  11/1/10 – What is the real end and aim of all Masonic labors and ceremonies?
#231 – Q  #231 – A  10/25/10 – On top of the Ark of the Covenant were two Cherubim with their wings extended forward over the ark. Why were the Cherubim positioned in that way?
#230 – Q  #230 – A  10/18/10 – When and by whom was the Holy Bible (the Great Light of Masonry) first divided into chapters?
#229 – Q  #229 – A  10/11/10 – What can you tell a non-Mason about Freemasonry?
#228 – Q  #228 – A  10/4/10 – Why were the Ancients (also spelled Antients) sometimes called Atholl Masons? When did the Ancient Grand Lodge come into existence?
#227 – Q  #227 – A  09/27/10 – What is Freemasonry’s greatest treasure?
#226 – Q  #226 – A  09/20/10 – Of what stone is the foundation stone of King Solomon’s Temple said to be made of, and what is the symbolism of that stone?
#225 – Q  #225 – A  09/13/10 – What are the allurements of Masonry?
#224 – Q  #224 – A  09/06/10 – What are the duties of the Junior Deacon?
#223 – Q  #223 – A  08/30/10 – Our Brother being mentioned here graduated from medical school and moved to Grand Forks, North Dakota in 1881. He became a member of Acacia Lodge # 15 of the Grand Lodge of Dakota Territory and was elected as Master of that Lodge for three terms starting in 1883. In 1887 he was elected the Grand Master of Masons of the Dakota Territory. Who is the Brother we speak of? What gang was involved in this attempted robbery? Where and when is the festival mentioned above held?
#222 – Q  #222 – A  08/23/10 – Our question has to do with the Ladder of certain additional degrees, here is the question: What names or qualities are assigned to the seven rungs of this ladder?
#221 – Q  #221 – A  08/16/10 – Who was this Master Mason that officially turned down an offered Medal of
Honor?? When was it politely rejected ? Where was he made a Master Mason and in which Grand
Lodge did he affiliate and serve?
#220 – Q  #220 – A  08/09/10 – When did the original Cornerstone Laying Ceremony on the Pilgrim Monument occur; Who was the presiding Master Mason and when was he raised a Master Mason?
#219 – Q  #219 – A  08/02/10 – To whom is a Mason answerable for his motives when casting a ballot?
#218 – Q  #218 – A  07/26/10 – Who was the Master Mason who helped start the tradition of the Trophy Game? What year was it? What teams were, and, are involved? In what city did the game take place, and what is the name of the most time honored trophy?
#217 – Q  #217 – A  07/19/10 – What is the symbolic meaning of the candidate?
#216 – Q  #216 – A  07/12/10 – Where does Masonry teach the necessity for thought control?
#215 – Q  #215 – A  07/5/10 – Who was the youngest Marine to receive the Medal of Honor in World War II? And, what Lodge was he a member of?
#214 – Q  #214 – A  06/28/10 – Brother Thornton A. Jackson established the first Eastern Star Chapter amongst Black Women in the united States; He was its first Worthy Patron and March Welch was its first Worthy Matron: With that information here is the question for the week – What was the name of this Chapter? When and where was it established?
#213 – Q  #213 – A  06/21/10 – Who is the Mason who  was the last surviving General Officer of the war of Independence of the United States, and what were the dates of his degrees?
#212 – Q  #212 – A  06/14/10 – This is a small village in Scotland about 10 miles (16 Kilometers) south of Edinburgh just off the Penicuik Road, famous for the cloning of sheep at the Government Experimental Farm, a castle ruined by Roundheads and a unique chapel. What is the name of the village?
#211 – Q  #211 – A  06/7/10 – Here is the prayer-poem I’m referring to: “Oh, Lord, bless this glorious order; who wote it?
#210 – Q  #210 – A  05/31/10 – When it comes to measuring the measuring rod or reed, which is counted in length by ‘cubits’, has been changed to the 24 inch gauge. The Graduation in ‘inches’ is actually an old English measure, but why? And what is the meaning of the symbolism we learn of the 24 inch gauge we learn in the first degree?
#209 – Q  #209 – A  05/24/10 – Name the only Brother to serve as Grand Master to both Grand Lodges of Kentucky & Illinois?
#208 – Q  #208 – A  05/17/10 – Why am I from the Lodge of the Saints John of Jerusalem?
#205 – Q  #205 – A  04/26/10 – In July 1863, Confederate raiders rode into Versailles, Indiana, capturing the local militia and stealing the county treasury. The next day, General John Morgan (CSA), learned that his men had also made off with the jewels of the local lodge. There were returned the following day. What lodge was Brother Morgan from?
#204 – Q  #204 – A  04/19/10 – ‘Will you be off or from?’ Is this a test‐question or a ‘catch‐question’? Please explain.
#203 – Q  #203 – A  04/12/10 – Why is the Hiram of the Kings version of the story called Hurum in the Chronicles
version of the story?
#202 – Q  #202 – A  04/05/10 – What is symbolism, and why is it so important to Freemasonry?
#201 – Q  #201 – A  3/29/10 – What is the Candidate’s Declaration?
#200 – Q  #200 – A  3/22/10 – Which item was a relative constant in the exposures?
#199 – Q  #199 – A  3/15/10 – Does an unaffiliated Mason enjoy the privilege of Masonic visitation?
#198- Q – #198 – A – 03/08/10 – This Saint was seen a protector against lightning strikes. Who was this?
#197- Q – #197 – A – 03/01/10 – Aside from the conferring of degrees; what is the purpose of the Masonic ritual?
#196- Q – #196 – A – 2/22/10 – How many Grand Lodge Officers were there in 1717?
#195- Q – #195 – A – 2/15/10 – Why should Masons take care to observe the dictates of respectability?
#194- Q – #194 – A – 2/08/10 – In balloting, to whom or what is the Master Mason accountable?
#193- Q – #193 – A – 2/01/10 – What is the significance of the termination of the names of the assassins?
#192- Q – #192 – A – 1/25/10 – Freemasonry has been described as a progressive science; as a science what does Freemasonry embrace?
#191- Q – #191 – A – 1/18/10 – According to Brother Albert Pike, “What is the seventh great Truth in Masonry?”
#190- Q – #190 – A – 1/11/10 – What are the Hebrew names of the supports of the ladder of Kadosh, and what do they mean in English?
#189- Q – #189 – A – 1/04/10 – What are the ornaments of a Freemason?
#188- Q – #188 – A – 12/28/09 – When did Minnesota Grand Lodge Master Mason’s first participate in a cornerstone ceremony and where did it take place?
#187- Q – #187 – A – 12/21/09 – What Masonic Lodge did the designer of America’s most widely recognized and Masonically -inspired Symbol of Liberty belong to; when was the cornerstone for this Internationally recognized memorial laid and who was the Grand Master who presided over this Masonic Cornerstone Ceremonial?
#186- Q – #186 – A – 12/14/09 – Regarding the Masonic symbolism of numerals, the sacred numbers are?
#185- Q – #185 – A – 12/07/09 – Why do we have Masonic Lectures and what are they?
#184- Q – #184 – A – 11/30/09 – What powerful example of Masonic Brotherhood was so power full that it could stop for a time–during the Civil War in the USA which caused me to wonder if that Brotherhood Power was as strong today? When and where did this incident occur?
#183- Q – #183 – A – 11/23/09 – Who was appointed as first acting executive director of The Minnesota Masonic Historical Society and Museum and when; where is this Masonic Museum located today; what are its individual or lodge membership dues and are you or is your lodge a member?
#182- Q – #182 – A – 11/16/09 – What is the name of this world class Freemason?
#181- Q – #181 – A – 11/9/09 – What was the name of the only Minnesotan Grand Lodge MW whose highest office in blue lodge ever achieved was Junior Warden and when and where did he serve?
#180- Q – #180 – A – 11/2/09 – In Freemasonry, what is the ‘rite of induction’ and what does it signify?
#179- Q – #179 – A – 10/26/09 – What Cornerstone laying did many of Minnesota’s finest Freemasons participate in last Saturday?
#178- Q – #178 – A – 10/19/09 – To what currently active lodge do two ‘rather renowned’ Masonic Secretaries bearing the same surname belong–What are their names and posts: AND what is the name of the lodge this duo are currently members of?
#177- Q – #177 – A – 10/12/09 – Who was the first Worshipful Master of Winthrop, Minnesota’s Sibley Lodge #209?
#176- Q – #176 – A – 10/05/09 – What is Inchoate membership?

#175- Q – #175 – A – 9/28/09 – Of what is the hour-glass emblematic?
#174- Q – #174 – A – 9/21/09 – Can a Lodge be congregated without the consent of the Master of the Lodge – why or why not?
#173- Q – #173 – A – 9/14/09 – What is a Rite?
#172- Q – #172 – A – 9/07/09 – Why do Brethren entering and leaving a Lodge salute the Master, and do they always do this?
#171- Q – #171 – A – 8/31/09 – What is the main difference between Operative and Speculative Masonry?
#170- Q – #170 – A – 8/24/09 – What is the real end and aim of all Masonic labors and ceremonies?
#169- Q – #169 – A – 8/17/09 – Why aren’t the candidates for the degrees of Masonry elected by a ‘voice’ vote?
#168- Q – #168 – A – 8/10/09 – Who is this person? And what is the literal meaning of his name?
#167- Q – #167 – A – 8/03/09 – What is the Jerusalem Word?

#166- Q – #166 – A – 7/27/09 – Where did King Solomon have a cave dug, and for what purpose?
#165- Q – #165 – A – 7/20/09 – Has the Grand Lodge the power to confer the degrees of Ancient Craft Masonry?
#164- Q – #164 – A – 7/13/09 – What new name is given to the entered apprentice, and why?
#163- Q – #163 – A – 7/6/09 – What are the ornaments of a Freemason?

#162- Q – #161 – A – 6/29/09 – How many Lodges were in the quarries of Tyre?
#161- Q – #161 – A – 6/22/09 – What Masonic symbol is derived from the banner of the tribe of Judah?
#160- Q – #160 – A – 6/15/09 – What is the chief point in Masonry?
#159- Q – #159 – A – 6/8/09 –  What is the insect Shermah, and what is its significance?
#158- Q – #158 – A – 6/1/09 –  What does the title of ‘Master’ of the Lodge signify?

#157- Q – #157 – A – 5/25/09 –  What are the Masonic Beliefs?
#156- Q – #156 – A – 5/18/09 –  Fellow & Fellow-Craft; what is the Masonic significance of these terms?
#155- Q – #155 – A – 5/11/09 –  What distinction is attached to the principle of ‘Brotherly Love’ among Freemasons?

#152- Q – #152 – A – 4/20/09 –  What is the meaning of the phrase – The Apocalypse of Freemasonry?
#151- Q – #151 – A – 4/13/09 –  Which Grand Lodge offices are “The Heraldic Offices?”
#150- Q – #150 – A – 4/6/09 –  When did the Terrestrial and Celestial globes appear on top of Boaz and Jachin?

#149- Q – #149 – A – 3/30/09 –  What are the purposes effected at the opening of the Lodge?
#148- Q – #148 – A – 3/23/09 –  Of what is the Middle Chamber a symbol?
#147- Q – #147 – A – 3/16/09 –  Who started the Modern day Knights Templar?
#146- Q – #146 – A – 3/9/09 –  What is more ancient than the Golden Fleece or Roman Eagle?
#145- Q – #145 – A – 3/2/09 –  What was the name of the Master Mason who was shot and killed in a shoot out with terrorists in front of Blair House in Washington D.C.?

#144- Q – #144 – A – 2/23/09 –  In what Masonic document is the legend of Hiram Abif first alluded to? What did it contain that is different from the legend as we know it today?
#143- Q – #143 – A – 2/16/09 –  What are a few of the connecting links of Eastern Free Masonry – which lie deeply imbedded in the Chinese Culture and Moralisms – which seem to have parallel in Western Masonry?
#142- Q – #142 – A – 2/9/09 –  On 12 & 13 April 1861 two Freemasons exchanged cannon fire that started the American Civil War. Who were these Masons, and where did the battle take place?

#138- Q – #138 – A – 1/12/09 –  Who is this Freemason?
#137- Q – #137 – A – 1/5/09 –  What is The Name of The Lodge which still is operational and has the longest — uninterrupted — time of existence in Minnesota? When did the first lodge organized in Minnesota Territory hold its first meeting?
#136- Q – #136 – A – 12/29/08 –  When was Twin Peaks Lodge # 32 in Midvale Utah founded and how does the Masonic Consecration Prayer, express and radiate tolerance and fraternity in Freemasonry?
#133- Q – #133 – A – 12/8/08 –  What does a man named Tycho Brahe, of the mid 16th century, have to do with TOLERANCE and why was he mentioned in the astrological news of December 4, 2008?
#132 – Q – #132 – A – 12/1/08 –  To what Masonic Brother, did Brother William Hogarth rough draft a letter to, two hours before his death?
#131 – Q – #131 – A – 11/24/08 –  What was the first lodge chartered (outside of the City of Winnipeg) by the Grand
Lodge of Manitoba?
#130 – Q – #130 – A – 11/17/08 –  When is a lodge clandestine? What is a clandestine Mason?
#129 – Q – #129 – A – 11/10/08 –  Masonically, what is the symbolism of the shovel?
#128 – Q – #128 – A – 11/03/08 –  Masonically, what is the symbolism of the North Star?
#127 – Q – #127 – A – 10/27/08 –  In Freemasonry what is the symbolism of the letter ‘H’, and, in which degree, and why is it important?
#126 – Q – #126 – A – 10/20/08 –  What is the Masonic symbolism of the Lost Word?
#125 – Q – #125 – A – 10/13/08 –  What is the Masonic symbolism of the key?
#124 – Q – #124 – A – 10/06/08 –  What is the symbolism of the Cornerstone?
#123 – Q – #123 – A – 9/29/08 –  Why is it so important to remove all metals including the wedding ring, and what has a wedding ring to do with a Rite of Destitution?
#122 – Q – #122 – A – 9/22/08 –  What iare the songs of Freemasonry?
#121 – Q – #121 – A – 9/15/08 –  What is the symbolism of Masonic Blue?
#120 – Q – #120 – A – 9/8/08 –  When Did the Gothic Church builders Amiens first hire a Master Mason?  What was his name?
#119 – Q – #119 – A – 9/1/08 –  What is the symbolism of meeting of the level?
#118 – Q – #118 – A – 8/25/08 – By what attitude should Masonic meetings be characterized?
#117 – Q – #117 – A – 8/18/08 – When was the first known Masonic Medal struck, and for what purpose?
#116 – Q – #116 – A – 8/11/08 – During the reign of Augustus, who was deemed to be the father of true architecture?
#115 – Q – #115 – A – 08/04/08 – When did the word “Bible” first appear in Masonic literature? And when did the
Bible first appear in a Masonic lodge? The name and location of the said lodge?
#114 – Q – #114 – A – 07/28/08 – Why do brethren entering or retirning from a lodge salute the Master?
#113 – Q – #113 – A – 07/21/08 – Define each of the following and give its relationship to Freemasonry: a) Jacobean b) Jacobin c) Jacobite d) Jacobian.
#112 – Q – #112 – A – 07/14/08 – Name a piece by Berloiz with a Masonic connection.
#111 – Q – #111 – A – 07/07/08 – What is the symbolism of the Masonic altar?
#110 – Q – #110 – A – 06/30/08 – What is the real purpose of the obligation?
#109 – Q – #109 – A – 6/23/08 – What are the Golden Fleece, Roman Eagle, and the Star and Garter?
#108 – Q – #108 – A – 06/16/08 – What does the term Masonic Father mean to you? Do you have one? If so how did he become your Masonic Father? Are you someone’s Masonic Father? If so, what makes you a Masonic Father?
#107 – Q – #107 – A – 6/09/08 – What are the two great agents in building up the subjective mind, and how does this relate to Freemasonry? 
#106 – Q – #106 – A – 6/02/08 – The Trowel – we are told in symbolic Lodges that we, as Freemasons, are to use it to spread the cement of brotherly love and affection. How is this to be done? What is the significance of this metaphor? 
#105 – Q – #105 – A – 5/26/08 – What is the basic Masonic philosophy?
#104 – Q – #104 – A – 5/19/08 – On the capital of the pillars, how many Pomegranates were there?
#103 – Q – #103 – A – 5/12/08 – Why has symbolic Masonry three degrees only, and not four or seven or a larger number, as have other branches of the Fraternity?
#102 – Q – #102 – A – 5/05/08 – What is the Masonic meaning or truth, as one of the tenets of Freemasonry?
#101 – Q – #101 – A – 4/28/08 – What is a Rite?
#100 – Q – #100 – A – 4/21/08 – What is a hecatomb?
# 99 – Q – # 99 – A – 4/14/08 – What is the precedent for annual sessions of Grand Lodges?
# 98 – Q – # 98 – A – 4/8/08 – Masonically, what are Fool, Libertine, Dotage, and Profane?
# 97 – Q – # 97 – A – 4/1/08 – Why does parliamentary law not apply in a Masonic Lodge?
# 96 – Q – # 96 – A – 3/24/08 – What does the candidate’s condition, when first admitteed, signify?
# 95 – Q – # 95 – A – 3/17/08 – Of what is the virgin weeping emblamatic?
# 94 – Q – # 94 – A – 3/10/08 – In Minnesota a Lodge can have a Benevolence Fund that could be used for charitable purposes, but should it, and if it does, would that mean the members of the Lodge, if they wished, could just have the Lodge provide aid or relief on their behalf – in other words have the lodge just take care of this for them so they won’t need to do it themselves?
# 93 – Q – # 93 – A – 3/03/08 – Who was Brother Joseph Balsamo?
# 92 – Q – # 92 – A – 2/25/08 – Who may attend the Grand Lodge Communication upon proper registration?
# 91 – Q – # 91 – A – 2/18/08 – When was the use of gloves by Masons confirmed by documentary evidence?
# 90 – Q – # 90 – A – 2/11/08 – What is the Grand Lodge of Wigan?
# 89 – Q – # 89 – A – 2/4/08 – What is the name and location of the 1st Scottish Rite body in Prince Hall Freemasonry? And who was the first Prince Hall Freemason to receive the 33°?
# 88 – Q – # 88 – A – 1/28/08 – There are three Forms that a Lodge and/or a Grand Lodge can be opened in: What are the three forms? That’s the first part of the question; the second part is how do each of these forms come about in the opening or closing ceremonies?
# 87 – Q – # 87 – A – 1/21/08 – What symbols jhas Masonry borrowed from Pythagoras?
# 86 – Q – # 86 – A – 1/14/08 – What is the jurisdiction of a Masonic Lodge?
# 85 – Q – # 85 – A – 1/7/08 – What are the ancient Installation charges?
# 84 – Q – # 84 – A – 12/31/07 – How did the title “Free and Accepted Masons” originate?
# 83 – Q – # 83 – A – 12/24/07 – What is the Masonic calendar?
# 82 – Q – # 82 – A – 12/17/07 – Music is recommended to the attention of Freemasons; why?
# 81 – Q – # 81 – A – 12/10/07 – Why are “Worshipful Masters” called “Worshipful”?
# 80 – Q – # 80 – A – 12/3/07 – What was the office of Grand Tyler called at the Grand
Lodge Communication of 1738?
# 79 – Q – # 79 – A – 11/26/07 – Why is the Great Light of Masonry the Holy Bible and not some other volume of
sacred law?
# 78 – Q – # 78 – A – 11/19/07 – Is Freemasonry the one surviving midieval craft esotery?
# 77 – Q – # 77 – A – 11/12/07 – What is the lost word in Freemasonry?
# 76 – Q – # 76 – A – 11/5/07 – When and where can the first documented evidence using the word ‘Lodge’ as meaning a certain number of Masons be found?
# 75 – Q – # 75 – A – 10/15/07 – Why are discussions of politics and religion forbidden in Masonic Lodges, and are there any other discussions forbidden in Lodges?
# 74 – Q – # 74 – A – 10/22/07 – Why Tylers? Not why do we have Tylers, who guard the door to the Lodge, but why were Tylers chosen as our outer guards, and why were they given the name ‘Tyler’ for their office?
# 73 – Q – # 73 – A – 10/15/07 – From the Fellowcraft Degree, What is meant by “Forty and Two Thousand?”
# 72 – Q – # 72 – A – 10/8/07 – Where did the question “Will you be off or from?” come from? Is it a test phrase?
# 71 – Q – # 71 – A – 10/1/07 – Must all three chairs be occupied throughout the Craft’s ceremonies?
# 70 – Q – # 70 – A – 9/24/07 – Which is correct, compass or compasses, and why?
# 69 – Q – # 69 – A – 9/17/07 – Is there a secret religion in Masonry?
# 68 – Q – # 68 – A – 9/10/07 – What is the symbolism of meeting on the level?
# 67 – Q – # 67 – A – 9/3/07 – Preston – How blows a Mason’s wind?

# 66 – Q – # 66 – A – 8/20/07 What was the name of the two men of the same name, one a Governor, one a U.S. Sentator; one a Mason, one not a Mason?
# 63 – Q – # 63 – A – 7/30/07 – When was the First Grand Chaplain Appoined by any Grand Lodge?
# 62 – Q – # 62 – A – 7/23/07 – When Should The Lodge Election be Held?
# 60 – Q – # 60 – A – 7/2/07 – What is the Arch Enemy of Freemasonry?
# 59 – Q – # 59 – A – 7/2/07 – What is the Symbolism of the Fourth Point of Fellowship?
# 58 – Q – # 58 – A – 6/25/07 – Deny a Member Admission to his own Lodge?
# 57 – Q – # 57 – A – 6/18/07 – What 1874 Grand Master Resigned his Office
# 56 – Q – # 56 – A – 6/11/07 – Of What is the Substitute Word a Symbol
# 55 – Q – # 55 – A – 6/4/07 – Why is the Third Degree Called Sublime
# 54 – Q – # 54 – A – 5/28/07 – Of what is salt the emblem
# 53 – Q – # 53 – A – 5/21/07 Can Masonic Charges be Founded on Acts of Treason?
# 52 – Q – # 52 – A – 5/14/07 – Masonic Procession Regalia
# 51 – Q – # 51 – A – 5/7/07 – Laird of Rosslyn
# 50 – Q – – – 4/23/07
# 49 – Q – # 49 – A – 4/16/07
# 48 – Q – # 48 – A – 4/9/07
# 47 – Q – # 46 – A – 3/26/07
# 45 – Q – # 45 – A – 3/19/07
# 44 – Q – # 44 – A – 3/19/07 – Who Was Hiram Abiff
# 43 – Q – # 43 – A – 3/15/07 – Three Great Lights
# 42 – Q – # 42 – A – 2/26/07 – Masonry in the Great Lights
# 41 – Q – # 41 – A – 2/19/07 – Lodge Communication
# 40 – Q – # 40 – A – 2/12/07 – Brother George Washington
# 39 – Q – # 39 – A – 2/5/07 – What is a Moon Lodge
# 38 – Q – # 38 – A – 1/29/07 – Duty
# 37 – Q – # 37 – A – 1/22/07 – Jacob’s Ladder
# 36 – Q – # 36 – A – 1/15/07 – What’s the Distinction
# 35 – Q – # 35 – A – 1/15/07 – Lawful Information
# 34 – Q – # 34 – A – 12/30/06 – Ahiman Rezon
# 33 – Q – # 33 – A – 12/23/06 – Another English Grand Lodge
# 32 – Q – # 32 – A – 12/22/06 – Speculative or Symbolic Lodge
# 31 – Q – # 31 – A – 12/10/06 – Ecclesiastes: Chapter 12
# 30 – Q – # 30 – A – 12/2/06 – Volume of Sacred Law
# 29 – Q – # 29 – A – 11/26/06 – What is a Lodge
# 28 – Q – # 28 – A – 11/19/06 – Vice Presidents
# 27 – Q – # 27 – A – 11/12/06 – Due Form
# 26 – Q – # 26 – A – 11/6/06 – Royal Arch
# 25 – Q – # 25 – A – 10/29/06 – Benjamin Franklin
# 24 – Q – # 24 – A – 10/22/06 – The Square
# 23 – Q – # 23 – A – 10/16/06 – Sculptors
# 22 – Q – # 22 – A – 10/8/06 – Samoan
# 21 – Q – # 21 – A – 10/1/06 – Jeopardy
# 20 – Q – # 20 – A – 9/24/06 – Bro. Rob Morris
# 19 – Q – # 19 – A – 9/17/06 – Empty Chair Ceremony
# 18 – Q – # 18 – A – 9/10/06 – The Letter ‘G’
# 17 – Q – # 17 – A – 9/3/06 – Past Master’s Jewel
# 16 – Q – # 16 – A – 8/27/06 – Robert Burns
# 15 – Q – # 15 – A – 8/20/06 – Texas
# 14 – Q – # 14 – A – 8/6/06 – Morality
# 13 – Q – # 13 – A – 8/6/06 – York
# 12 – Q – # 12 – A – 7/31/06 – Labor
# 11 – Q – # 11 – A – 7/23/06 – Quatuor Coronatorum Antigrapha
# 10 – Q – # 10 – A – 7/17/06 – What Was Its Name
# 09 – Q – # 09 – A – 7/17/06 – The Nine Worthies
# 08 – Q – # 08 – A – 7/17/06 – Lodge Summons
# 07 – Q – # 07 – A – 7/17/06 – Masonic Opera
# 06 – Q – # 06 – A – 7/17/06 – The Length of a Cable Tow
# 05 – Q – # 05 – A – 7/17/06 – Unpleasant Lodge Incident in 1712
# 04 – Q – # 04 – A – 7/17/06 – Lodge Characteristics
# 03 – Q – # 03 – A – 6/6/06 – Birth of Speculative Masonry
# 02 – Q – # 02 – A – 5/22/06 – AlbertPike Lecture Name